Tanks and Artillery
kusoCartoon_13634660095696_.jpgZarconian Macross is imputing into Macross incomplete warfare.They need ground infantry and tanks and artillery.If they had this it would have made a difference but they had it seperated.Need it upgraded and changed to outer space warfare.Zarconian will make these changes and Terminal Computers to use HK Terminator in them.They need to have infantry to reinforce planets and countries,land in space hand in hand with Space wing.Make a network like a base.
MTModule TankkusoCartoon_13820394598564_.jpg
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen Armada These Armored Tank vehicles carry compliment of mechas.They are large for tanks.They can deliver alot of firepower.McrsTrp.jpg
Image.ashxLeopard tankkusoCartoon_13630376149499_.jpgkusoCartoon_13648520042931_.jpg
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen ArmadakusoCartoon_13630376149499_.jpg
Qnrtkjiv6g1qb49u5202rsr1t3337360.jpg-final"Battletron"Combiner Zarco Macross Army
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen Armada Travel under mach .5 because when they go over terrain they won't wipe out.Adaptation to move and formup and re-form.That is part of space war.Zarco Macross tanks can fire kinetic rounds of energy.They have direct hits.From long range and to space.Any range.Armor design with barrier system.Module tank is complicated mixed integrated with instruments and computers.CPU is aid to station.Controls and monitors all systems and aids pilot combiner.
If made more complicated and it had space upgrades to make it a higher machine.Give it set of weapons effective.Instrument scanners.Interface with the clone endo troops.Work hand in hand.Series of tanks are a vehicle tank with energy guns.It has a turret.They have primal armor.Barrier system and modules.The next Twin unit tank with laser gun cannons and launchers.They have launchers to setup a spike with the missiles like SAMS.Now the warships land and layout the battlegroup platoons of tanks.Railgun tank of Macross is then deployed in space infantry to take out objects in space as warships.Extended range and can move around as a tank and is 20 times size of many tanks.Uses principle of rail as energy but has no aperature.Aperture is represented by energy fire and EM.Uses conductors but powers up at the fusion level.Plasma stores and changing plasma with lasers.Making different plasma and plasma for firing.Conductor rails in the gun then charge up like antimatter conductivity.Firing plasma and it has live rounds too.It can travel at 250 Miles per hour supposed.These other tanks are monuverable and capable of going half of mach.Complicated inside with efficient systems.Laser gun has kinetics like a leopard tanks increased into laser.Ballistics is very high and powerful.They can takeoff and land in other spots in battlefield.They can fire hovering.Look for air targets.They are air supported."Battletron" is a Army combiner of modulated units complicated.They think and make decisions.They from Battletron can formup.Battletron has raw power like army.He has attatchments and heavy cannon lasers internal.He can blast kinetic rounds.He has a munition tied to trailer unit.He has his Army alien tech systems as a power like battlefield aquisition and targeting as a power and can transform to enhance his systems modulated.He has heavy fire power and lasers.Rapid firepower lasers.He has cluster and guided rocket pod munitions and stores.He networks to a sattelite network.He has tranforming hand combat tools for combat.He is very strong.140ft giant.He has his army technology systems and antigravity systems to fly in space.He joins all units as Battletron's thinking and adaptations for war.His high rank and judgement.Effective weapons.Trailer can carry anything he wants,weapons packs he wants for army war.Space tanks are module.They have missile and projectile launchers which are mutli purpose and AA.They have any range.They travel mach .4 and mach .3.They are highly monuverable.They have verniers system antigravity to their tractsion.They have their Zarco Macross tank crew soldiers and land ships warfare.Tracking instruments with their weapons and imagery.They have barreir system countermeasures.They are deployed in squads and have environment towards the hostile alien worlds and space.30cm laser guns fire energy that has kinetic rounds that can blow up and destory the enemy.Go to missiles and launchers on the enemy in the sky and space,AA.They can destroy on the land with their missiles.Kinetic rounds of plasma gas as rounds fire energy with potential inside it from ballistics.Bolts.Covert ops of getting out of tanks to send in troops to disarm by foot.CPU then takes over.Space tanks.Alien instrument system to class tank and its needs.Armor layers.Enigmatech systems force fields with countermeasures.kusoCartoon_13630377042912_.jpgkusoCartoon_13640725413299_.jpg A History of Tanksimages.jpeg

No military confrontation in modern history has taken place without the involvement of the 'Landships' or the 'Tanks', as they are generally called.

To put it simple, tanks are armored ground vehicles (AGVs) on caterpillar tracks, which were invented and designed to engage enemy forces and their vehicles by using of direct fire. The characteristic feature of tank is its heavy protective armor, its ability to unleash immense fire power and a great deal of mobility. Tanks can be manoeuvered in a rugged terrain at a relatively high speed.tt.png089_001.jpg4441167782_e1697dac7d.jpg
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The tanks or the AGVs have been around for over a century and have undergone several changes since they first rolled on. From being the illegitimate children of the First World War to becoming the more sophisticated and more lethal machinery of modern times, tanks have seen many revolutionary evolutions. They were used in the First World War to bust trenches and to break the dominance of machine guns in the battlefield. It didn't take them long to become an essential part of any military force having assumed the role of cavalry on the battlefield.Tanks come in various sizes now. The early tanks were fairly simple, containing large internal combustion engines and armor plate hanging on an oversize chassis. Today, there are light tanks as well as the behemoths known as main battle tanks. Light tanks are smaller in size and are cheaper, quicker and easier to maneuver. Main Battle Tanks ( MBTs ), on the other hand, are fearsome in capability and lethal as hell. Nothing on the battlefield can stand their full fledged onslaught.
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The British initially developed the tanks, but they were put to use mostly by the Germans during the two World Wars. While the British saw them as a cavalry weapon meant to sweep in and 'shock' the battlefield, the Germans endeavored to pack them with more and more power to make them capable of pushing the enemy fire back. They saw them as an aid to infantry. Even today, tanks are organized into armored units in combined armed forces, and seldom operate alone. Without the support of the infantry units, tanks are quite vulnerable to enemy infantry, mines, artillery and air attacks. Being extremely complex machines, modern tanks also need constant logistical support.
Cutaway1Tiger tank
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen Armada
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Tanks are also at a loss when they have to operate in wooded terrain and urban environments, which nullify the advantages of the tank's long-range firepower, limit the crew's ability to detect potential threats, and can even limit the turret's ability to traverse.There is no denying of the fact that in the era of 'surgical strikes' tanks have certainly lost their sheen to a considerable degree, and though the armor and weapons continue to be developed across the world, nations are reconsidering having such heavy, operationally expensive and logistically demanding weaponry. Nevertheless, tanks continue to be among the most formidable and versatile weapons of the modern battlefield, both for their ability to engage other ground targets and their shock value against infantry.leopardtankdoorsnede.jpgimages2.jpeglpt.pngltt.png
Artillery - Guns and Howitzers Zarco Macross has artillery in the space military as robotech lacked ideas and power from the army.More ground units to transport and fortify with artillery but these ideas into energy weapons and lasers.Upgraded a new [alien design technology to retain the power and potential into bolts.Bolts will as gas will carry a potential of cutting energy that will blow.Idead of getting through the enemy armor.Robotics too play a role in modules. made sophisticated with instruments sensors and troops.Now we will have transportable ground military forces to secure the planets.And war with the aliens.Naval variants of artllery.Range in space dimension.Robotech has not ended into the artillery world for Zarconian Macross.Platoon and squads to setup to attack and destroy the enemy.Countermeasures to protect them from attack,force fields.Unload the equipment.[ ] Modern advances in armament and technology continue to drive the development and application of combined arms doctrine. The integration of artillery assets into a unified fire support plan is a major task for the combined arms commander. Integration is also fundamental to the success of any operation.data_naval_d2.jpggun_typical_heavy_001.gif

The artillery forces call for maximal range and rate of fire. Increasing rate of fire and chamber pressure lead to higher strains on gun, projectiles, primer charges, fuses and ammunition flow. Burst firing requires a very high reliability of all components: flick ramming must not impair fuse function, primer cartridges must be extracted reliably at all chamber pressures, shock and vibration effects on components must be tolerable. Short combat readiness time, quick ammunition change and energy management are additional requirements.

The future thrust in gun systems is with higher accuracy guns, longer range, and smarter munitions. By using smaller magazine loads, ammunition can be mixed to better encounter a diversity of targets. Increasing the speed of the loading, ramming and firing operation is a goal of many organizations. For example, fixed ammunition would require only one ramming action, although it would introduce higher g forces.

Large calibre weapons, 155 mm howitzers for instance, are usually equipped with muzzle brakes. The purpose of these brakes is to reduce the recoil impulse on the weapons. Muzzle brakes unfortunately have negative side effects on the recoil system. The effect is that a force resulting from the gas pressure on the blades in the muzzle brake acts on the barrel, initiating oscillations. These oscillations are transferred from the barrel to the recoil system. The force acting on the recoil rod assemble therefore is oscillatory

Integrated fire support is a decisive element on the modern battlefield. In the offense, it is the principal means of achieving an advantageous correlation of forces over the enemy. It can blast gaps in defenses; disrupt, immobilize, or destroy enemy groupings in his tactical depth; and repel counterattacks. In the defense, it disrupts enemy preparations for the attack, causes attrition as he approaches the forward edge, and repels forces that reach or penetrate the forward edge. Fire superiority is a precondition for the success of any attack. The attacker must be able to execute his fire missions while suppressing counterbattery fire. Fire superiority is also the cornerstone of any defense, although often achieved only for a limited time, at the crucial point in the battle.

Battalion fires are the preferred method of fire for the OPFOR, although there are situations in which battery fire is appropriate. Fire superiority often results from using battalion-size fires, and from artillery groups formed from "top-down" provided assets. The main benefits of battalion versus battery fires result from two major factors: increased volume of fires and decreased firing times. Increased volume of fires allows delivering up to three times the number of rounds fired against the target/target area during a specific period of time. These fires reduce the time to fire the specific number of rounds to achieve the desired damage criteria by about two-thirds. The shorter firing time(s) could also improve/enhance survivability by reducing their exposure to counterfire assets.

Most former Soviet Union, many Middle Eastern, and African countries prefer to "dig-in" (particularly with towed systems). Their artillery will likely remain in already "dug-in" positions rather than "shoot and scoot" (as the US and a few NATO countries prefer) to enhance survivability. This would support battalion fires. On the other hand, if the artillery unit was just occupying a firing position, and not very close to being "dug-in" as would typically occur in the offense, the reasonable choice to minimize losses would be to vacate/move (out of harms way) to another firing position. In the case of MRL units, many, if not all, will to relocate as rapidly as possible because of their firing signature. Other appropriate use of battery-level fires includes: targets of opportunity occupying small areas (to include troop concentrations) generally no larger than a hectare, in response to ambushes, and in situations requiring direct fire.

Standard Unit Set of Ammunition (Basic Load) describes the ammunition carried by the organic transport of an artillery unit. Artillery units begin battle with a full complement of ammunition, to include specialized ammunition such as artillery-delivered high precision munitions (ADHPM), scatterable mines, illumination, and smoke. Under normal conditions specialized munitions are present in limited numbers. This allows a commander to respond to unforeseen situations. The makeup of these �basic loads" varies between systems, based on unit missions, ammunition available and haul capacity. The following is a possible breakout of ammunition that would be available to an artillery unit.
Ammunition

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2S3/2S19

2S12

2S5

2S7

BM-21

He-Frag*

47%

40%

77%

50%

80%

67%

ICM*

20%

20%

0%

17%

20%

20%

Flechette

10%

10%

0%

8%

0%

0%

HEAT-FS

5%

5%

0%

5%

0%

0%

Smoke (WP)

5%

5%

10%

5%

0%

0%

Illumination

10%

10%

10%

0%

0%

0%

ADHPM

3%

5%

3%

5%

0%

3%
Scatt Mines

0%

5%

0%

10%

0%

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  • 10% of these munitions will be extended range.

** ADHPM includes all munitions referred to as precision-guided munitions (PGM)

(a) The above percentages apply to the total haul capacity of a firing unit. Haul capacity includes the weapons on-board storage and the carrying capacity of trucks organic to the unit. Generally, haul capacity is 2.0 units of fire for self-propelled systems, 1.6 units of fire for towed systems, and 1.3 units of fire for MRLs. Units could also receive additional transportation support from division and army-level assets if required by the situation.

(b) For all systems, additional ammunition above these "basic loads" would be predominately HE-Frag with a limited number of ICM. Other types of ammunition are allocated to meet specific mission requirements.

A unit of fire is a logistical calculation for resupply of ammunition and does not imply any specific types of ammunition. At battalion level, a unit of fire only applies to high volume ammunition such as HE-Frag, ICM, and the extended range version of these rounds. Other ammunition types, such as PGMs, scatterable mines, chemical, illumination, and smoke are handled on a special basis. These munitions are issued only as needed to fulfill specific missions or resupply expended stocks. Thus, there are "standard" and "special" units of fire. A "standard" unit of fire has only one type of ammunition, normally a "killing" round (HE-Frag or ICM). A "special" unit of fire will have "killing" rounds but will also include specialized ammunition. Ammunition distribution can be used to influence the battle. This not only means the amount but also the types of ammunition supplied. The main effort may not only receive more ammunition than the supporting effort, but it may also receive a higher percentage of improved munitions than the supporting effort. Conversely, the supporting effort will likely have a higher percentage of HE-Frag ammunition.

Modern conventional fire support means, especially precision weapons, approach the destructive effect of low-yield nuclear weapons. A [precision weapon is one capable of delivering guided conventional munitions with a 50- to 60-percent probability of destroying enemy targets with a first-round hit (within range of the weapon delivery system). This capability is possible only by employing precision munitions that have a guidance or homing element. The presence of the precision munition transforms a weapon into a precision weapon. However, a precision weapon system must also incorporate a target acquisition and tracking subsystem and a missile or projectile guidance subsystem.

The fielding of precision munitions provides distinct advantages for a tube artillery unit. First, tube artillery units are capable of firing at individual targets (to include pinpoint targets such as tanks, infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs), or field fortifications) with a high probability of a first-round kill. For example, a unit firing 152-mm laser-guided projectiles (LGPs) can reduce its ammunition expenditure by 40 to 50 times, compared to using 152-mm conventional munitions, and also destroy the target three to five times faster. This eliminates the traditional requirement for an area fire or artillery barrage. Second, a tube artillery unit can fire at group targets using the same gun settings computed relative to the center of mass of the group target.
Target Damage Criteria
Target damage is the effect of fires on a given military target. It results in total, partial, or temporary loss of the target's combat effectiveness. The categories of target damage are annihilation, demolition, neutralization, and harassment.

Annihilation fires make unobserved targets combat-ineffective, needing major construction to be usable. For a point target such as an ATGM launcher, the OPFOR must expend enough rounds to ensure a 70 to 90 percent probability of kill. For area targets such as platoon strongpoints or nuclear artillery assets, they must fire enough rounds to destroy from 50 to 60 percent of the targets within the group. These fires result in the group ceasing to exist as a fighting force.
Demolition refers to the destruction of buildings and engineer works (bridges, fortifications, roads). Demolition requires enough rounds to make such material objects unfit for further use. It is a subset of annihilation.
Neutralization fire inflicts enough losses on a target to— Cause it to temporarily lose its combat effectiveness; Restrict or prohibit its maneuver; Disrupt its C2 capability. To achieve neutralization, artillery must deliver enough rounds to destroy 30 percent of a group of unobserved targets.
Harassment uses a limited number of artillery pieces and ammunition within a prescribed time to deliver harassment fires. The goal of these fires is to put psychological pressure on enemy personnel in concentrated defensive areas, command posts, and rear installations. Successful harassment fire inhibits maneuver, lowers morale, interrupts rest, and weakens enemy combat readiness.

Counterbattery Fire accomplishes the neutralization or annihilation of enemy artillery batteries. Combat with enemy artillery is one of the artillery's most important missions. It enables ground forces to achieve fire superiority on the battlefield. Combat with enemy artillery requires more than counterbattery fire. It requires the destruction of C2 centers as well as artillery. It also requires the cooperation of other ground combat arms and aviation.

Maneuver by Fire occurs when a unit shifts fire from one target, or group of targets, to another without changing firing positions. This is a combined arms concept in which the artillery plays a critical role. Maneuver by fire masses fires on the most important enemy installations or force groupings. Its intention is to destroy them in a short period of time or to redistribute fires to destroy several targets simultaneously. Another purpose may be to shift the OPFOR�s main combat effort from one axis to another.

For annihilation or neutralization missions against fires as many (or as few) rounds as necessary for the observer to indicate that the target has sustained the required amount of damage. For unobserved fire, a general table of ammunition expenditure norms is used as the basis for artillery fire planning. The following table is an example of such a table for fragmentation high-explosive (frag-HE) rounds required to annihilate or neutralize various targets. This table does not consider time.kusoCartoon_13640811125160_.jpg

Target

Required
Effect

Frag-HE Rounds by Caliber in Millimeters
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Guns and Howitzers

Mortars

MRLs

76

85

100

122

130

152

203

82

120

240

122

220

SSM Launcher

Target
annihilation

800

720

540

300

280

200

70

60

360

200

Battery (platoon) of
armored self-propelled
artillery (mortars)

Target
neutralization

1000

900

720

450

360

270

120

450

120

400

240

Battery (platoon) of
unarmored self-propelled
or dug-in towed artillery
mortars

Target
neutralization

540

480

360

240

220

180

100

400

240

100

320

180

Battery (platoon) of
towed Artillery in the
open

Target
neutralization

250

220

150

90

80

60

30

180

90

20

120

60

SAM Battery

Target
neutralization

250

240

200

150

150

100

60

200

100

Signal and Radar vans or
radar control point in
the open

Target
neutralization

420

360

280

180

180

120

60

350

180

40

240

120

Dug-in troops and
weapons in prepared
defense strongpoint
positions

Neutralization
of 1 hectare
of target area

480

450

320

200

200

150

60

200

50

240

100

Dug-in troops and
weapons, tanks, IFVs, and
APCs in hastily prepared
defense positions, and
assembly areas

Neutralization
of 1 hectare
of target area

400

350

250

150

150

110

45

300

140

45

180

80

Troops and weapons
in assembly area in the
open

Neutralization
of 1 hectare
of target area

50

45

30

20

20

15

5

35

10

4

8

5

Command post in dug-
out shelter or other
overhead cover

Neutralization
of 1 hectare
of target area

480

450

320

200

200

150

60

200

50

240

100

Command post in the
open (or mounted in
vehicle

Neutralization
of 1 hectare
of target area

120

100

80

80

50

40

15

25

10

20

15

ATGM,antitank gun of
other individual target in
the open

Target
neutralization

250

240

180

140

140

100

90

240

140

35

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Artillery

Guns, Howitzers and Artillery Pieces Combining the Characteristics of Guns and Howitzers:
105 mm:

105 Light Gun
M18
105 Krupp Gun
105 R Metal Gun
105 Pack How Skoda
M 56 Pack How
M 101 Towed How
M102 Towed How
Abbot SP Gun
M108 SP How
M52 SP How
105 HM-2 How
M-38 Gun (Skoda)
105 AU 50 How
R58/M26 Towed How

122 mm:

122/46 Field Gun
D30 How
M 30 How
2S1 SP How

130 mm:

M 46 Gun

140 mm:

5.5" (139.7 mm)

152 mm:

D1 How

150 mm:

150 Skoda Gun

152 mm:

D20 Gun-How
2S3 SP How

155 mm:

M114
M114/39 (M-139)
Towed How
>FH-70 Towed How
>M109 SP How
M198 Towed How
155 TRF1
155 AUF1 Gun
155 AMF3 Gun
155 BF50 Gun
M44 SP How
M59 Towed Gun
SP70 SP How

175 mm:

M107 SP Gun

203 mm:

M115 Towed How
M110 SP How
M55 SP How

l00 mm:

BS-3 Field Gun
Model 53 Field Gun
Skoda How (Model 1914/1934,1930,1934)
How (Model 1939)

105 mm:

Schneider Field Gun (Model 1936)

120 mm:

2B16 How
2S9 SP How

122 mm:

D30 How
M-30 How
D74 How
A19 Gun (Model 31/37)
2S1 SP How
Model 89 SP How

130 mm:

Gun 82
M-46 Gun

150 mm:

Skoda How (Model 1934)
Ceh How (Model 1937)
Towed How
2S3 SP How
2A65 How
ML20 How-Gun
D20 Gun-How
Gun 81
2A36 Gun
Dana SP Gun-How M77
Towed How2S5 SP Gun
2S19 SP How
Gun-How 85
How Model 1938
Gun How 81

203 mm:

B4 How
2S7 SP Gun

Mortars:
107 mm:

4.2" (ground mounted or on M106 armoured vehicle)

120 mm:

Brandt (M60, M-120-60, LM-120-AM-50)
M120 RTF 1
M120 M51
Soltam/Tampella (ground mounted B-24 or on M113 armoured vehicle)
Ecia Mod L (ground mounted M-L or mounted on either the BMR-600 or M113 armoured vehicle)
HY12 (Tosam)
2B11 (2S12)

107 mm:

Mortar M-1938

120 mm:

2B11 (2S12)
M 120 Model 38/43
Tundzha/Tundzha Sani SP Mortar (mounted on MT-LB)
Mortar Model 1982

160 mm:

M160
240 mm:
M240
2S4 SP Mortar

Multiple-Launch Rocket Systems:
110 mm:

LARS

122 mm:

BM-21
RM-70

140 mm:

Teruel MLAS

227 mm:

MLRS

122 mm:

BM-21 (BM-21-1, BM-21V)
RM-70
APR-21
APR-40

130 mm:

M-51
RM-130
BM-13
R.2

140 mm:

BM-14

220 mm:

BM-22/27

240 mm:

BM-24

280 mm:

Uragan 9P140

300 mm:

Smerch

Sources and Methods

Chapter 9 Artillery Support FM 100-61 ARMOR- AND MECHANIZED-BASED OPPOSING FORCE OPERATIONAL ART

Artillery (Old French artillerie; Italian artiglieria; Spanish artilleria). Its former meaning comprised all implements of war, and it was generally used in the plural. Then the word was used particularly to denote engines for discharging missiles, such as catapults, bows, crossbows, and slings.

In modern use the term 'artillery' denotes all projectile-firing weapons, invariably guns and missile launchers, mounted on carriages or firing platforms. Early artillery pieces were known as cannon and were described by names such as saker, robinet, falcon, culverin, minion, and serpentine. By the end of the 17th century guns were generally classed by the weight of the solid iron shot they fired, as 4-pounder, 6-pounder, 12-pounder, and so forth. Today guns are classified by their metric calibre; light artillery having a calibre of 120 mm or less, medium 121-160 mm, and heavy 161-210 mm. All types of artillery are often described by the term 'ordnance', and the science governing the use and management of artillery is known as gunnery.
Photo by Kristin Smith
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Image.ashx2Leopard tank
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Contents
[hide]

1 Early History
2 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
3 Development in the First World War
4 Second World War Developments
5 Post 1945 Developments

Early HistoryEdit

In the Old Testament 'engines invented by cunning men to shoot arrows and great stones' are mentioned. Continual improvements were made, and under the names of catapulta, balister, and trebuchet such arms were used in medieval warfare.

The early history of gunpowder and the gun is cloaked in obscurity and speculation, and there is no evidence to support the popular theory that Berthold Schwarz, a German monk living in the Black Forest, conceived the idea of a cannon when the gunpowder he was experimenting with blew the lid from his apothecary's mortar. Indeed there is no evidence to suggest that the existence of Schwarz himself is anything other than a work of fiction, and all that can be said with certainty is that brass cannon were being manufactured for the defence of Florence in 1326. The English used cannon at the Battle of Crecy in 1346, and it is thought that they may also have been used at Metz in 1324 or Algeciras in 1342.

The earliest cannon were shaped like vases, and fired heavy arrows with a complete lack of accuracy. Then they were made as simple tubes from iron bars welded together and encased in wrought-iron rings. Bolts were soon replaced as projectiles by round stones and iron balls, and by the 16th century cannon were being cast in iron and brass. Most cannon were loaded via the muzzle since early breech-loaders were not a success and soon fell into disuse. At first, cannon were used predominantly as weapons of siege warfare, and it was not until the end of the 14th century that their employment as field artillery during battles was widely practised. The French led Europe in the development of artillery and towards the end of the 15th century they introduced the first true field pieces when bronze cannon were mounted on two-wheeled carriages pulled by horses.
The 16th century saw a decline in the use of artillery since it failed to achieve the mobility and range necessary to counter improved infantry tactics and weapons. The cumbersome artillery pieces could be used at the start of an engagement but the tide of battle soon left them behind. The problem was eventually solved by Gustavus Adol-phus (1594-1632) who succeeded, through improvements in casting and the manufacture of gunpowder, in reducing the weight of his guns without decreasing their range. He also introduced the highly mobile 'leather gun'
80o338vep1t52nds93o331kg26339650.jpg-final"Battery"Robot Vehicle Being Battery tank Zarco Macross
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen Armada
which could be drawn over rough country by only one horse or two men.

Zarco Macross "Battery" is not just a tank but a module robot being vehicle.He has thinking and brain bigger than a person endo.He is able to combat and fight and for every mission.He fires laser battery fire.He has turret to mover around and has complications inside.Module.He can hover with antigravity systems inside.He changes to robot mode and all of his components are now configurated to soldier robot with his own personality and judgement.He can lead the tanks and has battlefield aquisition.He has alien technology.He was made for Zarco Macross.Zarco Macross is our Macross with advancements.He is a ranking and can combiner with troop endo.He has long rang in space levels.Aiming systems and instruments efficient.Enigmatech systems force fields defenses.He can fire live munition in his stores and has a laser gun for tanks.It is like a Cybertron Gobotron armament.
Eighteenth and Nineteenth CenturiesEdit

The limited nature of warfare during the early 18th century did little to encourage innovation, and it was once more left to the French to introduce the next improvements in gunnery. In 1765 Jean Baptiste de Gribeauval began the process, which was to turn artillery into a decisive weapon of war under Napoleon's direction. Gribeauval reduced the weight and size of the French field pieces and standardised them as 4-, 8-, and 12-pounder guns (able to fire 1.8, 3.6, and 5.4 kg), and 6-inch (150-millimeter) howitzers. He further increased mobility by providing limbers, by harnessing draft horses in pairs instead of in single file, and by establishing a corps of trained military drivers. The rocket perfected by Sir William Congreve enjoyed a brief period of service during the Napoleonic Wars, but its inaccuracy and limited range prevented its acceptance as a permanent artillery weapon.

The artillery with which the British army fought the Crimean War differed little from the weapons it had used at Waterloo forty years earlier, and this striking anomaly in an age when engineering and manufacturing techniques were making rapid progress led a British engineer, William Armstrong, to design and build a gun worthy of contemporary knowledge. He used wrought instead of cast iron, rifled the bore with grooves to increase accuracy, and rejected muzzle-loading in favour of breech-loading. After three years of trials the Armstrong gun was accepted by both the army and navy in 1858, but due to the weakness of its breech, which prevented a shot being fired with sufficient power to penetrate the armour of the new ironclad ships, it was gradually replaced by the more powerful rifled muzzle-loading (RML) gun.

The supremacy of the RML guns was short-lived since their increasing size and the complexity of the machinery needed to load larger and larger shells into their muzzles, led to a return to improved breech-loading designs. There were still problems to be overcome. In the absence of an efficient recoil-absorbing system guns continued to hurl themselves backwards after every shot, having then to be manhandled to their original position and relaid before they could be brought to bear on the target.

Experiments using hydraulics to dampen the recoil were conducted in Britain and the USA, but the first efficient hydro-pneumatic system was developed by France in the form of the 75-millimetre 1897 Field Gun. Britain's experience in the Boer War underlined the inadequacy of its artillery, and a search began for new weapons incorporating the essential features of the quick-firing gun: recoil control, a simple but efficient breech, a protective gun shield, and an integrated cartridge, shell, and fuse. The guns selected were an 18-pounder (able to fire 8 kg), which was to play a prominent role in France during the First World War, a 45-inch (114-millimetre) howitzer, and a 13-pounder (able to fire 6 kg) for the Royal Horse Artillery.
Development in the First World WarEdit

Four years of scientific warfare in the First World War saw a consistent development in the power and influence of artillery, both in the actual battle and in all the stages which lead up to it.

Ever-increasing demands for guns were made in the first two years of the war. The only modern heavy howitzer available to the British army in 1914 was the 9-2-inch (234-millimetre) Mark I howitzer which first saw action at the battle of Neuve Chapelle. When in 1916 General Haig was calling for more guns, he selected the latest 'Marks' of existing models in order to facilitate construction and to ensure uniformity in design. At the same time he insisted that every effort should be made to increase the range and accuracy of guns, and that there should be no cessation of research and no finality of design.

The main principle on which the construction programme was based was to give a decisive fighting superiority per division over the German artillery. There was a preference for the howitzer over the gun. Its 'life' was greater, e.g., for a 6-inch (150-millimetre) gun, Mark VII, the 'life' was 1500 rounds, for a 6-inch howitzer, 10,000 rounds. The howitzer, too, was much easier to place in position in the field, and many could be sited in a comparatively restricted area, owing to the higher line of departure of the shell. Though they had less range than guns of similar shell-power, howitzers were more mobile and, fired at horizontal ranges, their accuracy was greater.

In 1914 there were in the original British expeditionary force 486 guns and howitzers, 24 of which were of medium calibre; at the Armistice there were 6437 guns and howitzers of all kinds (excluding anti-aircraft artillery and trench mortars), of which 2211 were medium and heavy artillery.

The later technical improvements in British artillery design included long-range, modern 6-, 8-, 9-2-, and 12-inch (150-, 200-, 234-, and 300-millimetre) howitzers, 6-inch Mark XIX guns on field carriages, and 9'2-, 12-, and 14-inch (234-, 300-, and 355-millimetre) Mark XIII guns on railway mountings. Other improvements were instantaneous fuses, gas, and smoke shells, stream-line shells, and incendiary and star shells.
Second World War DevelopmentsEdit

The Second World War saw a great development of anti-aircraft and tank guns. Also various types of self-propelled guns were used for assault or close support.

The improved German 88-millimetre gun was probably the best three-purpose gun (i.e., anti-tank, anti-aircraft, and field artillery piece) developed during the war. Many new types of artillery, including very large mortars and long-range field guns, were under development or construction in Germany in the closing stages of the war. Some of them had rocket-assisted shells. Among these were a 380-millimetre howitzer and rocket 'guns' with smooth-bore barrels, 122 m long, intended for the bombardment of London. A new 120-millimetre anti-tank gun was in development. The Germans were also working on a 32-inch (813-millimetre) siege gun, with a barrel 43 m long, which fired an 8-4-tonne projectile. In the last months of the war in the Far East the Japanese also introduced some heavy mortars and heavy rockets. German recoilless guns were another notable development which had first been used on a large scale during the airborne invasion of Crete.
kusoCartoon_13634648098555_.jpgZarco Macross Space Artillery is what Macross needed to deploy infantry for ground forces.War and securing planets and bases and conquering land on planets.Then to engage with the enemy when invade.Getting some solid portable ground fire energy guns.As Space artillery truck is getting artillery in right areas for firing kinetic energy rounds.Defenses enigmatech systems force fields.Space modules to re-creating North America military 20th century.Systems of tracking from truck.Sensors.Range is to outer space from ground.Nail and hit enemies.See with imagery instruments.Bases do this also to attack space forces from ground.That is why they deploy 2 stage equipment to get them more to space network.Range.With making laser from plasma stores and tanks.But we don't want the plasma to be unstable target.Plasma to power up a device changes it to energy rounds.Potential is in bolts.Gases but a containment field.
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. It is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore cannon, and is powered by a V-12 twin-turbo diesel engine. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Singapore, and Turkey. The Leopard 2 was used in Kosovo with the German Army, and has seen action in Afghanistan with the Dutch, Danish and Canadian contributions to the International Security Assistance Force, as well as also seeing action in Syria with the Turkish Armed Forces against ISIS and the YPG.

There are two main development batches of the tank: the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, and the improved batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped turret appliqué armour together with other improvements. All models feature digital fire control systems with laser rangefinders, a fully stabilised main gun and coaxial machine gun, and advanced night vision and sighting equipment (first vehicles used a low-light level TV system or LLLTV; thermal imaging was introduced later on). The tank has the ability to engage moving targets while moving over rough terrain.
Contents

1 History
1.1 Development
1.1.1 Prototype development
1.1.2 Leopard 2AV
1.1.3 Series production
1.1.4 Further improvements
1.1.5 Replacement
1.2 Exports
1.3 Combat history
1.3.1 KFOR
1.3.2 IFOR/SFOR
1.3.3 ISAF/OEF
1.3.4 Turkish intervention in Syria
2 Design
2.1 Protection
2.1.1 Secondary protection
2.1.2 Armour upgrades
2.1.3 Armour protection estimates
2.2 Armament
2.2.1 Primary
2.2.2 Secondary
2.2.3 Fire control
2.3 Propulsion
3 Variants
3.1 Leopard 2
3.2 Leopard 2A1
3.3 Leopard 2A2
3.4 Leopard 2A3
3.5 Leopard 2A4
3.6 Leopard 2 Marksman
3.7 Leopard 2A5
3.8 Stridsvagn 122
3.9 Leopard 2-140
3.10 Leopard 2A6
3.11 Leopard 2E
3.12 Leopard 2 PSO
3.13 Leopard 2A7
3.14 Leopard 2A7+
3.15 Engineering and driver training tanks
4 Technical data
5 Operators
5.1 Current operators
5.2 Future and potential operators
6 See also
6.1 Main Battle Tanks of comparable role, performance and era
7 Notes
8 References
9 Bibliography
10 External links

History
Development

Even as the Leopard 1 was just entering service, the German military was interested in producing an improved tank in the next decade. This resulted in the start of the MBT-70 development in cooperation with the United States beginning in 1963.[6] However already in 1967 it became questionable whether the MBT-70 would enter service at any time in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the German government issued the order to research future upgrade options of the Leopard 1 to the German company Porsche in 1967.[7] This study was named vergoldeter Leopard (Gilded Leopard) and focused on incorporating advanced technology into the Leopard design. The projected upgrades added an autoloader, a coaxial autocannon and an independent commander's periscope.[8] The anti-air machine gun could be operated from inside the vehicle and a TV surveillance camera was mounted on an expendable mast. The shape of the turret and hull was optimised using cast steel armour, while the suspension, transmission and the engine exhaust vents were improved.[9]
Prototype development
Leopard 2 PT15 with 105 mm smoothbore gun
Leopard 2 prototype (1983)
The Leopard 2 T14 mod. with the modified turret housing composite armour

Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in 1967, the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung (experimental development) as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank programme.[8] At first 25 million DM were invested, but after the industry came to the conclusion that with such a low budget the development of the two projected testbeds was not possible, a total of 30 to 32 million DM was invested. The experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret. Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT-70. A high first-hit probability at ranges of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and the ability to accurately engage targets on the move thanks to a computerised fire control system were the main goals of the experimental development. The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler (tusker). Two prototypes (ET 01 and ET 02) of the Keiler were built in 1969 and 1970, both of them being powered by the MB 872 engine.[10]

The MBT-70 was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in 1969. After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT-70 by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue—the driver being seated in the turret—it became clear in late 1969 that Germany would stop the bi-national development.[9] The assistant secretary of the military procurement division of the German Ministry of Defence suggested reusing as much technologies developed for the MBT-70 as possible in a further programme, which was nicknamed Eber (boar) due to him being named Eberhardt. The Eber used a modified MBT-70 turret and hull, with the driver being seated in the hull. Only a wooden mock-up was made.

One year later, a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late 1960s, instead of finishing the development of the Eber. In 1971, the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1, and Paul-Werner Krapke became the project officer of the Leopard 2 program.[11] Originally two versions were projected: the gun-armed Leopard 2K and the Leopard 2FK, which would be armed with the XM150 gun/launcher weapon of the MBT-70.[12]

That year 17 prototypes were ordered, but only 16 hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. Ten were ordered initially before another seven were ordered. The 17 turrets were designated T1 to T17, and the hulls were designated PT1 to PT11 and PT13 to PT17. To test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes. Ten of the turrets were equipped with 105 mm smoothbore guns, and the other seven prototypes were equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun.[12][13] Hulls PT11 and PT17 were fitted with a hydropneumatic suspension based on the MBT-70 design.[12] The running gears of these two hulls had only six road wheels. Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. All turrets were equipped with a machine gun for air-defence except the turret mounted on PT11, where a 20 mm remotely operated autocannon was mounted. With the exception of hulls PT07, PT09, PT15 and PT17, all prototypes used the MB 873 engine. The road wheels were taken from the MBT-70 and the return rollers from the Leopard 1.[12] The prototypes were designed with a projected weight of MLC50, which equals approximately 47.5 tonnes (46.7 long tons; 52.4 short tons). The welded turret utilised spaced armour formed by two steel plates.[14] The prototypes were equipped with an EMES-12 optical rangefinder and fire control system, which later was adopted on the Leopard 1A4.

In mid-1973 a new turret was designed by Wegmann saving 1.5 tonnes (1.5 long tons; 1.7 short tons) weight.[15] It was nicknamed the Spitzmaus-Turm (shrew turret) due to the highly sloped front. This design was only possible with the new EMES-13 optical rangefinder, which required a base length of only 350 millimetres (14 in) instead of the previous 1,720 millimetres (68 in).[14] Based on experiences in the Yom Kippur War, a higher level of protection than the prototypes' heavily sloped spaced armour was demanded in late 1973 and the Spitzmaus-Turm was never produced.[16] The weight limit was increased from MLC50 to MLC60, which equals approximately 55 tonnes (54 long tons; 61 short tons). The turret T14 was modified to test a new armour configuration, taking on a blockier-looking appearance as a result of using vertical modules of spaced multilayer armour. It was also used to test the new EMES-13 optical rangefinder. The modified turret T14 was designated T14 mod.[16] and was fitted with a fully electric turret drive and stabilization system, which was developed together by the companies General Electric and AEG Telefunken.
Leopard 2AV

In July 1973 German Federal Minister of Defence Georg Leber and his US counterpart James R. Schlesinger agreed upon a higher degree of standardization in main battle tanks being favourable to NATO. By integrating components already fully developed by German companies for the Leopard 2, the costs of the XM1 Abrams, U.S. prototype tank developed after the MBT-70, should be reduced. A German commission was sent to the US to evaluate the harmonisation of components between the XM1 and Leopard 2.[17] However, by American law it was not possible for a public bidder to interfere in a procurement tender after a contract with intention of profits and deadline was awarded to companies of the private industry.[17]

As a result, the modification of the Leopard 2 prototypes in order to meet the US Army requirements was investigated. Following a number of further talks, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed on 11 December 1974 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America, which declared that a modified version of the Leopard 2 should be trialled by the USA against their XM1 prototypes,[18] after the Americans had bought and investigated prototype PT07 in 1973.[19] The MOU obligated the Federal Republic of Germany to send a complete prototype, a hull, a vehicle for ballistic tests and a number of special ballistic parts to the US, where they would be put through US testing procedures for no additional costs.[20]

The Leopard 2AV (austere version) was based on the experiences of the previous Leopard 2 development. It was created in order to meet the US requirements and the latest protection requirements of the German MoD. The turret T14 mod was used as base for the Leopard 2AV's turret, but meeting the required level of protection for the hull required several attempts until the final ballistic trials on 23 to 26 June 1976.[21] Following the US' preference of laser rangefinders, the turret of prototype PT19 was fitted with a laser rangefinder developed together with the American company Hughes.[22] In comparison with the earlier Leopard 2 prototypes, the fire control system was simplified by replacing the EMES-12 optical rangefinder and removing the crosswind sensor, the air-pressure and temperature sensors, the powder temperature sensor, the PERI R12 commander sight with IR searchlight, the short-range grenade launcher for use against infantry, the retractable search-light, the spotlight, the retractable passive night vision sight, the APU and the mechanical loading assistant.[20]

Due to the design and production of the Leopard 2AV taking more time than expected, the shipment to the US and the US evaluation was delayed. It was not possible to test the Leopard 2AV before 1 September 1976.[21] Despite the German wish that the Leopard 2AV and the XM1 prototypes would be evaluated at the same time, the US Army decided not to wait for the Leopard 2AV and tested the XM1 prototypes from Chrysler and General Motors beforehand.[17][23]

Two new prototype hulls and three turrets were shipped to the US: PT20 mounting a 105 mm rifled L7 gun and a Hughes fire control system, PT19 with the same fire control system but able to swap out the gun for the 120 mm Rheinmetall smoothbore gun, and the PT21 fitted with the Krupp Atlas Elektronik EMES-13 fire control system and the 120 mm Rheinmetall gun.[19] The Leopard 2AV fully met the US requirements.[24] A study made by the American FMC Corporation showed, that it was possible to produce the Leopard 2AV under licence in America without exceeding the cost limits set by the Army.[24] But already before the trials were finished, it was decided that instead of the US army possibly adopting the Leopard 2AV, the focus was shifted on the commonization of components between the two tanks. FMC, after having acquired the licences for production of the Leopard 2AV, decided not to submit a technical proposal, as they saw little to no chance in the US Army adopting a vehicle not developed in the USA.[23]

The US Army evaluation showed that on the XM1 a larger portion of the tank's surface was covered by special armour than on the Leopard 2AV.[23] Differences in armour protection were attributed to the different perceptions on the expected threats and the haste in which the Leopard 2AV was designed to accommodate special armour.[23] On mobility trials the Leopard 2AV performed equal to better than the XM1 prototypes. The AGT-1500 gas turbine proved to consume about 50% more fuel[25] and the Diehl tracks had a higher endurance, while the tracks used on the XM1 prototypes failed to meet the Army's requirements.[24] The heat signature of the MTU diesel engine was much lower.[25] The fire control system and the sights of the Leopard 2 were considered to be better and the 120 mm gun proved to be superior.[23] The projected production costs for one XM1 tank were $728,000 in 1976, the costs for one Leopard 2AV were $56,000 higher.[23]

After the American evaluation of the Leopard 2AV and the US army's decision to opt for the XM1 Abrams, both American and German sources blamed the other side. According to American literature it was discovered, that the Leopard 2AV prototype used for mobility trials was underweight.[nb 1]

In Germany the test conditions were criticised for being unrealistic and favouring the XM1. Instead of using actual performance data, the calculated hypothetical acceleration was used.[25] The XM1 was found to have a slightly higher rate of fire despite having internal layouts similar to the Leopard 2AV, because the XM1 prototypes were manned by professional crews, while the Leopard 2AV had to be manned by conscripts in order to prove that the Leopard 2AV was not too complicated.[25] Firing on the move was demonstrated on flat tracks, which nullified the better stabilization systems of the Leopard 2AV.[25]
Series production
Leopard 2 tanks during a manoeuvre in 1986

The decision to put the Leopard 2 tank in production for the German army was made after a study was undertaken, which showed that adopting the Leopard 2 mod would result in a greater combat potential of the German army than producing more Leopard 1A4 tanks or developing an improved version of the Leopard 1A4 with 105/120 mm smoothbore gun, improved armour protection, a new fire control system and a 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) or 1,500 horsepower (1,100 kW) engine.[26] Various changes were applied to the Leopard 2 design before the series production started.[27][28] Engine, transmission and suspension were slightly modified and improved. The ballistic protection of turret and hull was improved and weak spots were eliminated. The turret bustle containing the ready ammunition racks and the hydraulic systems was separated from the crew compartment and fitted with blow-out panels. The development of several new components introduced to the Leopard 2 during the Leopard 2AV development and after the US testing was completed. For the series version the Hughes-designed laser rangefinder made with US Common Modules was chosen over the passive EMES-13 rangefinder. The EMES-13 system was considered to be the superior solution, but the Hughes system was cheaper and fully developed.[29]

The German company Krupp-Atlas-Elektronik acquired the licence of the Hughes design and modified it to meet the needs of the German army.[29] The modified rangefinder received the designation EMES-15. The installation of the US Honeywell AGT1500 in the Leopard 2 was tested by MaK.[24] The AGT-1500 was borrowed from the United States and required deep modifications of the Leopard 2's chassis. However driving tests at the WTD 41 revealed a number of drawbacks such as high fuel consumption and the lacking performance of the transmission including the brakes.[24] This project was thus terminated.

In January 1977 Germany ordered a small pre-series of three hulls and two turrets which were delivered in 1978. These vehicles had increased armour protection on the front of the hull. One of the hulls was fitted with the earlier turret T21 and was used by the German army school in Munster for troop trials until 1979.[30] In September 1977, 1,800 Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, to be produced in five batches. The main contractor was Krauss-Maffei, but Maschinenbau Kiel (MaK) was awarded with a contract for producing 45% of the tanks. The first batch consisted of 380 tanks. The delivery of six tanks was scheduled for 1979, 114 for 1980, 180 for 1981 and 300 tanks each following year.[31]

The first series tank was delivered on 25 October 1979. By 1982 the first batch of 380 Leopard 2 tanks was completed. 209 were built by Krauss-Maffei (chassis no. 10001 to 10210) and 171 by MaK (chassis no. 20001 to 20172). The first production tanks were fitted with the PzB-200 image intensifier due to production shortages of the new thermal night-sight system, which was later retrofitted to the earlier models. After the original five batches, three further batches of Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, increasing the amount of Leopard 2 tanks ordered by Germany to a total of 2,125.[32] The sixth batch was ordered in June 1987 and consisted of 150 tanks, which were produced between January 1988 and May 1989. The seventh batch of 100 tanks was produced between May 1988 and April 1990. The last batch for the German army totalling 75 tanks was produced from January 1991 to March 1992.[32]
Further improvements

While previous models only varied in detail, the Leopard 2A4 introduced a digital ballistic computer and an improved fire extinguishing system. Starting within the sixth batch tanks were fitted with an improved armour array and new side skirts. In 1984 the German military procurement agency stated a number of requirements for a future Leopard 2 upgrade. In 1989, the Kampfwertsteigerung (combat potential increasement) programme was initiated in Germany with the delivery of first prototypes. The official military requirements were published in March 1990.[33] The KWS programme was projected to consist of three stages. The first stage of the KWS programme replaced the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44 gun barrel and the corresponding gun mount with a longer barrelled and more lethal L/55 version.[33] This stage was adopted in form of 225 Leopard 2A6 tanks starting in 2001 and a lasting to 2005.[34] The KWS stage 2 focused on improvements of armour protection and survivability, it was adopted in form of the Leopard 2A5 starting in 1995. The base armour of the tank was exchanged and additional armour modules were installed at the turret. A first batch of 225 Leopard 2 tanks was upgraded to Leopard 2A5 configuration between 1995 and 1998, a second batch of 125 followed 1999 to 2002.[35]

In the third stage of KWS was the planned replacement of the Leopard 2 turret by a new turret fitted with a 140 mm NPzK tank gun, an autoloader and the IFIS battlefield management system.[33] The ballistic protection at the hull was to be improved.[33] Originally a total requirement for 650 Leopard 2 tanks with KWS 3 was projected.[34] It was never finalised, but the 140 mm NPzK tank gun was tested on an older prototype. In 1995 it was decided to cancel due to changes in the political environment. The funds were redirected to the NGP project of the German army. The Leopard 2A6M was developed with an enhanced mine-protection kit providing protection against mines that can detonate below the hull (like mines with bending wire trigger) and EFP mines.[34] The weight of the Leopard 2A6M is 62.5 tonnes.[36]

The latest version of the tank is the Leopard 2A7, which entered service in a small initial batch of 20 tanks in 2014.[37] Already before the first Leopard 2A7 tank was handed over to the German Army, plans for future upgrades were already made.[38] At this time an "extensive" increase in combat value while retaining the original mobility of the Leopard 2 was planned.[38] The optics of the tank also will be improved.[38]

In April 2015, Welt am Sonntag claimed that tungsten (wolfram) rounds used in Leopard 2 cannot penetrate the Russian T-90, nor the modernized version of T-80. They also stated that the German military will develop a new improved round, but it will be exclusively developed for the Leopard 2A7.[citation needed]

In 2015 Rheinmetall disclosed that it is developing a new 130 mm smoothbore gun for the Leopard 2 tank and its successor.[39] This gun will offer a 50% increase in performance and penetration. Marketing for the new gun was slated to begin in 2016.[39]
Replacement

The Leopard 2 first entered service in 1979, and its service life is anticipated to end around 2030. In May 2015, the German Ministry of Defence announced plans to develop a tank jointly with France as a successor to both the Leopard 2 and Leclerc tanks. Technologies and concepts will be investigated to determine what capabilities are needed in a future tank.[40] Deployment of the new tank, titled Main Ground Combat System (MGCS), will be preceded by incremental upgrades to the Leopard 2, including a new digital turret core system and situational awareness system and an Active Protection System (APS). A short-term lethality increase will come from a higher pressure 120 mm gun firing new ammunition, expected to deliver 20 percent better performance than the L/55. Mid-term efforts will focus on a Rheinmetall 130 mm cannon concept offering 50 percent better armour penetration. With the Russian T-14 Armata being equipped with the Afghanit, an Active Protection System designed to mitigate the effectiveness of ATGM, more importance is being placed on direct fire weapons.[41]
Exports

Germany has fielded about 2,125 Leopard 2 main battle tanks in various versions, but most of the tanks were sold following the German reunification. Other countries bought newly or locally built tanks.

The Netherlands ordered 445 Leopard 2 tanks on 2 March 1979, after examining the results of the Leopard 2AV in the United States.[42] It became the first export customer of the Leopard 2 and the vehicles were delivered between July 1981 and July 1986. The Swiss army decided to purchase Leopard 2 tanks over the M1A1 Abrams after trialing both tanks between August 1981 and June 1982. The Swiss decision was made on 24 August 1983 and the funding was subsequently approved by the government in 1984.[43] Thirty-five of the tanks were delivered by Kraus-Maffei by June 1987; Eidgenössische Konstruktionswerkstätte Thun started license production of 345 additional vehicles in December 1987.

The Leopard 2 became very popular in the 1990s, when the shrinking German army offered many of its redundant Leopard 2s at a reduced price. It became successful enough in Europe that the manufacturer started calling it the Euro Leopard, despite France, Britain, and Italy all operating their own MBTs. But with further non-European orders, the name "Global-Leopard" is now used instead.[44]

After investigating the option of a locally developed replacement for the Strv 103 tank, Sweden decided to buy a foreign tank model. The Leopard 2 Improved (Leopard 2A5 prototype) won the competition against the M1A2 Abrams and the French Leclerc; after intensive test from January 1994 to June 1994, the Swedish military opted for the Leopard 2.[45] The Swedish military also evaluated the Soviet T-80U tank, but separately from the other tanks. The Swedish military found the Leopard 2 Improved to meet the military demands by 90%.[45] The M1A2 only met the Swedish requirements by 86%, whereas the Leclerc met 63%. Sweden contracted on 20 June 1994 the production of 120 Stridsvagn 122 (Swedish Leopard 2A5 subvariant) with many components being made locally. The first Stridsvagn 122 was delivered on 19 December 1996. Sweden also leased and later bought a total of 160 Leopard 2A4 tanks in 1994 and 1995; the first vehicle was delivered in February 1994.[45]

Denmark bought 51 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks after the Danish military school, the Haerens Kampskole, recommended to base the adoption of a new tank on the Swedish army trials. The tanks were delivered in 1997, but the upgrade to Leopard 2A5 level was already decided. In 2004 the Danish army bought another 18 ex-German Leopard 2 tanks.

In 1998, Greece held a competition to determine the main battle tank for the Hellenic army. The Leopard 2 Improved managed to outperform the Challenger 2E, Leclerc, M1A2 Abrams, T-80U and, T-84 and was subsequently chosen by the Greek officials. In March 2003 Greece ordered 170 Leopard 2 tanks of which 140 were locally assembled.[46][47] Greece also bought 183 Leopard 2A4 and 150 Leopard 1 tanks.[48]

Spain initially leased 109 Leopard 2A4 tanks, after Krauss-Maffei withdrew from the Lince development, a special lighter version of the Leopard 2 developed together with Santa Bárbara Sistemas. Before the end of the Lince tank, Spain already had rejected the M1A1 Abrams and the Vickers Valiant tank. After deciding to purchase the leased tanks, Santa Bárbara Sistemas acquired the licence to locally produce 219 Leopard 2A6 tanks for the Spanish army.[49]

Poland received 128 Leopard 2A4 tanks from German army stocks in 2002. In 2013 Poland ordered a further 119 ex-German Leopard 2s. Finland bought 124 used Leopard 2A4 tanks and six armoured bridge-layer Leopard 2L tanks from Germany in 2002 and 2003. The tanks served as replacement for the old Soviet-made T-55 and T-72M1. The Netherlands resold 114 of their tanks (and one turret) to Austria, 80 to Canada in 2007,[50] another 52 tanks to Norway, 37 to Portugal and finally 100 to Finland.

In 2005, Turkey ordered 298 Leopard 2 tanks from German army stocks.[51] The Leopard 2 was already chosen in 2001 after successfully competing one year earlier in the Turkish army trials against the T-84 Yatagan, Leclerc and a version of the M1A2 Abrams fitted with a German MTU diesel engine. Turkey already wanted to buy 1,000 Leopard 2 tanks in 1999, but the German government rejected such deal.

Singapore bought 96 Leopard 2 tanks from Germany in 2006.[52] Chile bought 172 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks and 273 Marder 1A3 IFVs in 2007.

Indonesia ordered 103 Leopard 2 tanks and 42 Marder 1A3 IFVs in 2013.[53] At first the export of heavy weapons to Indonesia was not allowed by the German government, due to the questionable human rights record of Indonesia. 61 of the 103 Leopard 2 tanks will be upgraded by Rheinmetall to the Leopard 2RI standard, based on Rheinmetall's Revolution modular upgrade concept.[54]

Qatar ordered 62 Leopard 2A7 tanks and 24 Panzerhaubitze 2000s in 2013[55] The delivery of the tanks started in late 2015 and the first tanks were displayed on a military parade on 18 December 2015.[56]

Saudi Arabia has shown interest in buying the Leopard 2 since the 1980s. However, due to the political circumstances and the questionable situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia, no deal was made. Saudi Arabia renewed its intention of buying Leopard 2 tanks in 2011.[57] While earlier news reports suggested an interest in buying about 200 tanks, later reports revealed an increased order of 600 to 800 tanks.[57] The German government at first approved the deal, but canceled it later due to human rights concerns and Saudi Arabia's military intervention in Bahrain.[57][58]

The Leopard 2 was also tested by the United Kingdom. In 1989 the Leopard 2 was evaluated as possible replacement for the Challenger 1 tank.[59] Ultimately the British armed forces decided to adopt the locally made Challenger 2. The Australian Army evaluated ex-Swiss Army Leopard 2s as a replacement for its Leopard 1AS tanks in 2003, but selected the M1A1 AIM instead due to easier logistics. More modern versions of the Leopard 2 or M1 Abrams, such as the Leopard 2A6 were not considered due to their higher price.[60]

In December 2018, Hungary placed an order for 44 Leopard 2A7+s and 12 second-hand 2A4s. The order coincided with the procurement of 24 Panzerhaubitze 2000, and is expected to replace Hungary's current fleet of T-72 tanks "no sooner than 2020".[61][62]
Combat history
KFOR

Starting on 12 June 1999, 28 Leopard 2A5 tanks were deployed by the German army as part of KFOR to Kosovo. The vehicles of Panzerbataillon 33 and 214, were sent from Macedonia to Prizren. They were used for patrols, protecting checkpoints and bases as well as part of the show of force. On 13 June 1999, two members of the Serbian paramilitary started firing from inside a Lada car at one of the checkpoints in Prizren. A Leopard 2A5 was located at the checkpoint, but it could not participate in the fighting as it was only partially crewed.[63] On 26 June 1999, a Leopard 2A5 fired four warning shots above the town of Orahovac.[64] At the end of 2000 and beginning of 2001, the tanks were replaced by the Leopard 2A4 model. Leopard 2A4s were deployed to Macedonia during 2001 as part of the NATO intervention. The tanks served to protect Bundeswehr logistic sites in Macedonia. Until their return in 2004 the Leopard 2 tanks were stationed at the Austrian-Swiss camp "Casablanca".[64]
IFOR/SFOR

The Dutch contingent in Bosnia-Hercegovina operated Leopard 2 tanks.[65] Dutch Leopard 2A4s and Leopard 2A5s at the NLD bases at Bugojno, Novi Travnik, Sisava, Knezevo, Maslovare and Suica.[citation needed]
ISAF/OEF

In October 2003, Canada was planning to replace its Leopard C2s with wheeled Stryker Mobile Gun Systems. However, operational experience in Afghanistan, and in particular during Operation Medusa, convinced the Canadian military of the usefulness of maintaining a tank fleet.[66] Leopard C2s were deployed to Kandahar in December 2006,[67] but they were by then almost 30 years old, and were nearing the end of their operational life. The Canadian government decided to borrow 20 Leopard 2A6s and three armoured recovery vehicles from Germany for rapid deployment to Afghanistan. In late August 2007, the first Leopard 2s were airlifted into Afghanistan to equip Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians).[68]

In an assault on 2 November 2007, a Leopard 2A6M hit an IED and survived without casualties: "My crew stumbled upon an IED (improvised explosive device) and made history as the first (crew) to test the (Leopard 2A6) M-packet. It worked as it should." wrote a Canadian officer in an email to German defence officials.[69] Canadian Chief of the Defence Staff General Rick Hillier denied reports that a Leopard 2 tank that was struck by an IED was a write-off, insisting that the tank has been repaired and is once again in use. "The Taliban have been engaged with some of the new Leopard 2 tanks in several ambushes" and that as a result the Taliban "learned some very harsh lessons" and lost the battle in question "very quickly and very violently."[70]

In October 2007, Denmark also deployed Leopard 2A5 DKs in support of operations in southern Afghanistan. The Danish tank unit, drawn from the first battalion of the Jydske Dragonregiment (Jutland Dragoons Regiment),[71] was equipped with three tanks and one M113 armoured personnel carrier, with an armoured recovery vehicle and another tank kept in reserve.[72] The Danish version of the Leopard 2A5 is fitted with Swedish-made Barracuda camouflage mats, that limit the absorption of solar heat, thus reducing infrared signature and interior temperature.[71] It also has a conventional driver's seat bolted on the floor of the tank, wherereas in the Canadian 2A6M (as part of the mine-protection package) the driver's seat has been replaced by a "Dynamic Safety Seat",[73] which is a parachute-harness like arrangement that the driver wears around his hip; in this way, the driver does not have any contact with the hull except on the pedals and is out of the shockwave area of exploding land mines or IEDs.

In January 2008, Danish tanks halted a flanking manoeuvre by Taliban forces near the Helmand River by providing gunfire in support of Danish and British infantry from elevated positions.[74] On 26 February 2008, a Danish Leopard 2 was hit by an explosive device, damaging one track. No one was injured and the tank returned to camp on its own for repairs.[75] The first fatality suffered by a crew operating a Leopard 2 happened on 25 July 2008. A Danish Leopard 2A5 hit an IED in Helmand Province. The vehicle was able to continue 200 metres (656 ft) before it halted. Three members of the four-man crew were able to escape even though wounded, but the driver was stuck inside. On site treatment by Danish medics could not save him. The vehicle was towed to FOB Attal and then later to FOB Armadillo for investigation and possible redeployment. During the same contact with Taliban forces, a second tank was caught in an explosion but none of the crew were wounded.[76] Beginning on 7 December 2008, Leopard 2 tanks took part in Operation Red Dagger, firing 31 rounds in support of Coalition troops as they recaptured Nad Ali District. A press release from the British Ministry of Defence praised the tank's fire accuracy and mobility, claiming the Leopard 2 was a decisive factor in the coalition's success.[citation needed] Danish Leopard 2A5s are, as of 2013, still in Afghanistan, providing security cover for the withdrawal of British and NATO troops.[77]
Turkish intervention in Syria

Turkey operates 354 Leopard 2A4 tanks. Initially using other tank types including upgraded M60s, in December 2016 Turkey deployed a number of Leopard 2A4s to the Syrian Civil War against ISIS (Daesh) as part of Operation Euphrates Shield.[78] Initially, three of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s operating in Syria were destroyed or damaged by Daesh using anti-tank missile systems (possibly Fagot or Konkurs anti-tank guided missiles obtained from Syrian or Iraqi Army captured stocks).[79][78] In mid-December 2016, two 2A4 tanks were captured by IS near al-Bab city in Syria during Euphrates Shield operations; Amaq News Agency posted video of the captured vehicles.[80][81] By late December 2016, Islamic State had captured or incapacitated 10 Leopard 2A4s. Some of the 10 were damaged by IEDs, while the rest were damaged by anti-tank weapons.[82] This is the largest number of Leopard 2A4 tanks to have been incapacitated in any one conflict.[82][83] Additional ISIS propaganda images and video depicting several completely destroyed Leopards, some with their turrets blown off, were published in January 2017.[84] Tanks which suffered the worst damage may have been destroyed by air strikes in order to prevent capture but sources generally state that the damage was caused solely with anti-tank missiles or car bombs driven by a suicide bomber (also known as suicide vehicle borne improvised explosive devices or SVBIED).[85][86]

Turkey also confirmed the use of Leopard 2A4 tanks during the Turkish military operation in Afrin to the German government.[87]
Design
Protection
Arrowhead-shaped armour module of the Leopard 2A5
The turret and hull sides of the Leopard 2A7+ are fitted with additional armour modules
The Leopard 2SG is fitted with AMAP composite armour

The Leopard 2 uses spaced multilayer armour throughout the design.[88] The armour consists of a combination of steel plates of different hardness, elastic materials and other non-metallic materials.[89][90][91] Steel plates with high hardness and high ductility are used. The armour is a result of extensive research about the formation and penetration mechanism of shaped charge jets.[92] The Leopard 2's armour might be based on the British Burlington armour, which had already been demonstrated to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1970.[93] Later, in the mid-1970s, full details about Burlington were handed over to the West-German government. The frontal arc of the Leopard 2's armour is designed to withstand large caliber kinetic energy penetrators and shaped charge projectiles.[91] During the 1980s, it was estimated that the Leopard 2's front would resist 125 mm APFSDS rounds fired from a distance of 1,500 m.[92][94]

The Leopard 2A4's armour has a maximum physical thickness of 800 millimetres (31 in) based on unofficial measurements and estimates made by former conscripts and professional soldiers of the German army.[95] On the Leopard 2A5 and subsequent models, the thickness is increased by the wedge-shaped armour module to 1,500 millimetres (59 in).[95]

The side and the rear of the tank protect against heavy machine guns, medium caliber rounds and older types of tank ammunition. The side of the hull is covered by armour skirts to increase protection against projectiles and RPGs. The frontal third of the hull sides is covered by heavy ballistic skirts, while the rest of the hull sides is covered by steel-reinforced rubber skirts. For increased protection against mines, the sides of the hull floor are sloped by 45° and the floor is reinforced with corrugations.[89]
Secondary protection
Ammunition storage in a Leopard 2A4

The Leopard 2's design follows the concept of compartmentation; possible sources of fire or explosions have been moved away from the crew.[91] In the turret, the ammunition and the hydraulics are located in compartments separated from the crew. In case of a detonation, the blow-off panels on the compartment roofs will direct the explosion and fire away from the crew. The crew is also protected against nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) threats, as the Leopard 2 is equipped with a Dräger NBC overpressurization system, which provides up to 4 millibars (4.0 hPa) over-pressure inside the vehicle.[96]

Two groups of four Wegmann 76 mm smoke mortars are mounted on either side of the turret and can be electrically fired either as single rounds or in salvos of four. They are mounted on most Leopard 2 models, with the exception of Dutch Leopard 2s, which are equipped instead with a Dutch-designed smoke mortar system with six barrels on each side.[96] Swedish Stridsvagn 122 utilise French GALIX smoke dispensers, similar to the system found on the French Leclerc.[97]

The Leopard 2 is equipped with a fire protection system. Four 9 kg Halon fire extinguisher bottles are installed on the right behind the driver's station. The bottles are connected to pipes and hoses and are activated automatically by the fire detection system, when temperatures rise above 82 °C (180 °F) inside the fighting compartment, or manually via a control panel in the driver's compartment.[96] An extra 2.5 kg Halon fire extinguisher is stored on the floor beneath the main gun.
Armour upgrades

Following the Leopard 2's introduction into service in 1979, the armour has been gradually improved over the years. A modified version of spaced multilayer armour was introduced beginning with the 97th vehicle of the 6th production batch.[98] The same batch also introduced an improved type of heavy ballistic skirts.

The Leopard 2A5 upgrade focused on increased armour protection. While upgrading a Leopard 2 tank to the Leopard 2A5 configuration, the roof covering the armour modules is cut open and new armour modules are inserted.[99][100] New additional armour modules made of laminated armour are covering the frontal arc of the turret. They have a distinctive arrowhead shape and improve the protection against both kinetic penetrators and shaped charges.[100][101] The side skirts also incorporate improved armour protection.[101] Furthermore, a 25 mm-thick spall liner reduces the danger of crew injuries in case of armour penetration.[96][100][102]

The Leopard 2A7 features the latest generation of passive armour and belly armour providing protection against mines and IEDs.[103] The Leopard 2A7 is fitted with adapters for mounting additional armour modules or protection systems against RPGs.[104]

For urban combat, the Leopard 2 can be fitted with different packages of modular armour. The Leopard 2A4M CAN, Leopard 2 PSO (Peace Support Operations) and the Leopard 2A7 can mount thick modules of composite armour along the flanks of turret and hull, while slat armour can be adapted at the vehicle rear. The armour modules provide protection against the RPG-7, which depending on the warhead can penetrate between 280 millimetres (11 in) and 600 millimetres (24 in) of steel armour.[105] The Leopard 2A6M CAN increases protection against rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) by including additional slat armour.[106]

Additional armour packages have been developed by a number of different companies. IBD Deisenroth has developed upgrades with MEXAS and AMAP composite armour, the latter is being used on Singaporean and Indonesian Leopard 2 tanks. RUAG has developed an armour upgrade utilizing their SidePRO-ATR composite armour. This upgrade was first presented on the IAV 2013.[107]

The Leopard 2A4M and 2A6M add an additional mine protection plate for the belly, which increases protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.[96]
Armour protection estimates

Estimated levels of protection for the Leopard 2 range from 590–690 mm RHAe on the turret, 600 mm RHAe on the glacis and lower front hull on the Leopard 2A4, to 920–940 mm RHAe on the turret, 620 mm RHAe on the glacis and lower front hull on the Leopard 2A6 against kinetic projectiles.[96][unreliable source?]

According to a description page hosted by the Federation of American Scientists, the armour of the Leopard 2A4 is believed to provide protection equivalent to 700 mm armour steel (RHA) against kinetic energy penetrators and 1000 mm RHA against shaped charge warheads.[108]
Armament
View through the panoramic PERI R17 sight
Primary

The primary armament for production versions of the Leopard 2 is the Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun—the same gun currently used on the M1 Abrams—in either the L/44 variant (found on all production Leopard 2s until the A5), or the L/55 variant (as found on the Leopard 2A6 and subsequent models).[96] Ammunition for the gun comprises 27 rounds stored in a special magazine in the forward section of the hull, to the left of the driver's station, with an additional 15 rounds stored in the left side of the turret bustle, which are separated from the fighting compartment by an electrically operated door.[96] If the ammunition storage area is hit, a blow-off panel in the turret roof would direct an explosion upwards away from the crew compartment.[96] The gun is fully stabilised, and can fire a variety of types of rounds, such as the German DM43 APFSDS-T anti-tank round, which is said to be able to penetrate 560 millimeters (22 in)[109] of steel armour at a range of 2,000 metres (2,200 yd),[110] and the German DM12 multipurpose anti-tank projectile (MPAT).[111] For the L/55 gun, a newer APFSDS-T round was introduced to take advantage of the longer barrel, the DM-53, which is said to be able to penetrate 750 mm of RHAe armour at a range of 2,000 meters.[96] The bore evacuator and the gun's thermal sleeve of the A4 and A5, designed to regulate the temperature of the barrel, are fabricated from glass-reinforced plastic. The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life.[112] The main gun is capable of power elevating from +20° to −9°.[113]

Rheinmetall has developed an upgrade for Leopard 2 tanks to give them the ability to fire the Israeli LAHAT anti-tank guided missile through the main gun; the missile can engage targets out to a range of 6,000 metres (20,000 ft).[114]
Secondary

The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount. German models use the MG 3 7.62 mm machine gun; Dutch and Singapore models use FN MAG 7.62 mm machine guns; Swiss models use Swiss MG 87 7.5 mm machine guns.[96] 4750 rounds of machine gun ammunition are carried on board the Leopard 2.
Fire control

The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilised primary sight. The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd:YAG laser rangefinder and a 120 element Mercury cadmium telluride, HgCdTe (also known as CMT) Zeiss thermographic camera, both of which are linked to the tank's fire control computer.[115] A backup 8x auxiliary telescope FERO-Z18 is mounted coaxially for the gunner.[96] The commander has an independent periscope, the Rheinmetall/Zeiss PERI-R 17 A2. The PERI-R 17 A2 is a stabilised panoramic periscope sight designed for day/night observation and target identification; it provides an all round view with a traverse of 360°. The thermal image from the commander's periscope is displayed on a monitor inside the tank. Initial production tanks were not equipped with a thermal sight, due to the sight not being ready, and instead temporarily substituted the PZB 200 low light TV system (LLLTV).[96]

The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds. The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. Also, because the laser rangefinder is integrated into the gunner's primary sight, the gunner is able to read the digital range measurement directly. The maximum range of the laser rangefinder is just less than 10,000 m with a measuring accuracy to within 20 m at this range.[115] The combined system allows the Leopard 2 to engage moving targets at ranges of up to 5,000 meters whilst itself being on the move over rough terrain.
Propulsion
The Leopard 2's MB 873 Ka-501 V12 engine
German Leopard 2A4 with turret snorkel, 2010

The Leopard 2 is propelled by the MTU MB 873 Ka-501 engine, which provides 1,500 PS (1,103 kW) at 2,600 rpm and 3,466 lb⋅ft (4,699 N⋅m) of torque at 1,600-1,700 rpm. The MTU MB 873 Ka-501 is a four-stroke, 47.7 litre, 90° V-block 12-cylinder, twin-turbocharged and intercooled, liquid-cooled diesel engine (with multi-fuel capability), which has an estimated fuel consumption rate of around 300 litres per 100 km on roads and 500 litres per 100 km across country, and is coupled to the Renk HSWL 354 gear and brake system.[96][115] The Renk HSWL 354 transmission has four forward and two reverse gears, with a torque converter and is completely automatic, with the driver selecting the range.[96] The Leopard 2 has four fuel tanks, which have a total capacity of approximately 1,160 litres, giving a maximum road range of about 500 km.[96] The propulsion pack is capable of driving the tank to a top road speed of 68 km/h (limited to 50 km/h during peacetime by law), and top reverse is 31 km/h.[116] The power pack can be changed in the field in 35 minutes.[96] The engine and transmission is separated from the crew compartment through a fireproof bulkhead.[115] An enhanced version of the EuroPowerPack, with a 1,650 PS (1,214 kW) MTU MT883 engine has also been trialled by the Leopard 2.[115]

The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension, and has advanced friction dampers. The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear.[96] The tracks are Diehl 570F tracks, with rubber-bushed end connectors, which have removable rubber pads and use 82 links on each track. For use in icy ground, up to 18 rubber pads can be replaced by the same number of grousers, which are stored in the vehicle's bow when not in use.[96] The upper part of the tracks are covered with side skirts.[113]

The Leopard 2 can drive through water 4 meters (13 ft) deep using a snorkel or 1.2 meters (3 ft 11 in) without any preparation. It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high.

The German Army has prioritised mobility in its Leopard 2, which might be the fastest main battle tank in the world.[117]
Variants

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File:Zwei Leopard 2A5 beim durchqueren eines Gewässer.ogvPlay media
Two German Army Leopard 2s demonstrate their deep-wading capabilities
Leopard 2

The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version. The vehicles were manufactured from October 1979 until March 1982, altogether 380 vehicles. 209 were built by Krauss Maffei and 171 by MaK. The basic equipment consisted of electrical-hydraulic stabiliser WNA-H22, a fire control computer, a laser rangefinder, a wind sensor, a general purpose telescope EMES 15, a panorama periscope PERI R17, the tower sight FERO Z18, on the tower roof as well as a computer controlled tank testing set RPP 1–8. 200 of the vehicles had a low-light enhancer (PZB 200) instead of a thermal imaging. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles.[citation needed]
Leopard 2A1

Minor modifications and the installation of the gunner's thermal sight[1] were worked into the second batch of 450 vehicles Leopard 2 designated the A1; 248 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10211 to 10458) and 202 by Mak (Chassis Nr. 20173 to 20347). Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March 1982 and ended in November 1983. The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduced refuelling time.[citation needed]

A third batch of 300 Leopard 2—165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10459 to 10623) and 135 by MaK (Chassis Nr. 20375 to 20509.)—was built between November 1983 and November 1984. This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s.[citation needed]
Leopard 2A2

This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches. This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB 200 sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available. Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system. Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in 1984 and ended in 1987; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features. The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.[118]
Leopard 2A3

The fourth batch of 300 vehicles; 165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10624 to 10788) and 135 by Mak (Chassis Nr. 20510 to 20644) was delivered between December 1984 and December 1985. The main change was the addition of the SEM80/90 digital radio sets (also being fitted to the Leopard 1 at the same time), and the ammunition reloading hatches being welded shut. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3.[citation needed]
Leopard 2A4
Singapore Army Leopard 2SG upgraded with AMAP composite armour and towards the rear with slat armour by IBD & ST Kinetics

The most widespread version of the Leopard 2 family, the 2A4 models included more substantial changes, including an automated fire and explosion suppression system, an all-digital fire control system able to handle new ammunition types, and an improved turret with flat titanium/tungsten armour. The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between 1985 and 1992. All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard. Until 1994, Germany operated a total of 2,125 2A4s (695 newly built and the rest modified older versions), while the Netherlands had an additional 445 tanks. The 2A4 was also license manufactured in Switzerland as the Panzer 87 "Leopard" or Pz 87. This version included Swiss-built 7.5 mm MG 87 machine guns and communications equipment, and featured improved NBC protection system. Switzerland operated 380 Pz 87 tanks.[citation needed]

After 2000, Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War. These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these buyers of the surplus tanks were Turkey (purchasing 354 vehicles), Greece (183), Sweden (160), Chile (140), Finland (139), Poland (128), Austria (114), Spain (108), Canada (107), Singapore (96), Norway (52), Denmark (51), and Portugal (37).[119]
Austrian Leopard 2A4 gunner's sights

The Pz 87WE (WertErhaltung) is a planned Swiss modification and upgrade of the Pz 87.[120] The modification significantly improves protection through the addition of the Leopard 2A6M's mine protection kit, thicker armour on the front glacis, and a turret equipped with a Swiss-developed armour package using titanium alloy. The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned. Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems. The fire control system is also upgraded, using the Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH PERI-R17A2 fire control system. A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun is also fitted to the tank.[citation needed]

The Pz 87-140[121] is an experimental variant of the Swiss Pz 87 with a 140 mm gun and additional armour, which was later used on the newer production variants.[citation needed]

The Leopard 2A4CHL is the upgraded Chilean version of the Leopard 2A4 ordered by Chile in 2007. Upgrades include new electronics, sighting and information systems meant to elevate the Leopard 2A4's networking capability to be equal to that of the Leopard 2A6, a new suspension system and the upgrading of the tanks main gun to the L/55 smoothbore cannon used on the Leopard 2A6. Other upgrades are remote weapon stations over the gunner and commander hatches fitted with the MG3 and HK GMG. The Leopard 2A4CHL also has improved roof and side turret armour and can be uplinked with Chile's battlefield control network.[citation needed]
Leopard 2A4 of the Bundesheer, with its powerplant on display

The Leopard 2A4M CAN is the upgraded Canadian version of the Leopard 2A4 acquired from the Royal Netherlands Army surplus. The Leopard 2A4M CAN is specially designed for the war in Afghanistan, based on experience gained by Leopard 2 operators. The first 20 were delivered in October 2010; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of 2010 and operated until July 2011, when combat operations stopped.[122] Though originally planned to be up-gunned to the L/55 for consistency with the 2A6M CAN, the longer barrelled guns (optimised for tank-vs-tank warfare) were found to be less than ideal in Afghanistan, therefore it was decided to retain the L/44. In addition, only small areas of slat armour were added, in contrast with the fully caged 2A6M CANs. The protection of the Leopard 2A4M CAN has been further augmented by the addition of applique armour resembling that found on the most recent Leopard 2A7+ variant, but modified to fit the turret configuration of the 2A4.[123] Of the remaining ex-Dutch Leopards, Canada will upgrade 13 for training use (9 A4's, 2 A4M's and 2 A6M's) and convert 18 to Armoured Engineering Vehicles (13 firm and 5 options). Canada has also purchased 15 2A4s from Germany as Logistic Stock Vehicles (for spare parts), and in February 2011 bought 12 2A4s/Pz 87 from the Swiss to be converted to "support vehicles" (likely Armoured Recovery Vehicles).[citation needed]

The Leopard 2NG (Next Generation) is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by Aselsan that includes the application of modular composite armour (AMAP), upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since 1995 and to be delivered by late 2011, which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT. It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s.[124] The old powerpack and the L/44 gun barrel are kept, but the combat weight is increased to 65 tonnes.[124] According to Turkish news sources, Finland was interested in getting the Turkish upgrade package to modernise their fleet of Leopard 2A4s. However, in 2015 Finland purchased 120 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands.[125][126]

The Leopard 2 hull was also used for the Vickers Mk 7 main battle tank, which featured a British-designed turret, where some of the innovations later were incorporated into the Challenger 2 design.
Leopard 2 Marksman
Leopard 2 Marksman of the Finnish Army
Main article: Marksman anti-aircraft system

Finland has modernised its Marksman SPAAG vehicles by replacing the original T-55AM chassis with a newer Leopard 2A4 chassis.[127] The upgraded Marksman vehicles were scheduled to enter service with the Finnish Army in 2016.[128] The new Leopard 2 chassis greatly improves mobility compared to the older T-55AM chassis, both on- and off-road. The Leopard 2 chassis is also larger, thus providing a more stable firing platform for the Marksman turret to operate from.[129]
Leopard 2A5
Leopard 2A5s of the Polish Land Forces

"Leopard 2 Improved" was a prototype-series for enhancing the A4, introducing a wedge-shaped, spaced add-on armour to the turret front and the frontal area of the sides. These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap, since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring. The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour.[citation needed]

The Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition. The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type. The commander's sight was moved to a new position behind the hatch and it received an independent thermal channel. The gunner's sight was moved to the turret roof as opposed to the cavity in the front armour in previous models. A heavier sliding driver's hatch was fitted. Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The gun braking system was improved to prepare for the later mounting of the new L/55 gun tube and to enable firing of more powerful ammunition, such as the DM-53 APFSDS. The first A5s were handed over to the German army tank school in 1995 and started to enter regular service with Panzerbataillon 33 in December the same year.[130]

The Leopard 2A5 DK is a variant of the Leopard 2A5 similar to the Leopard 2A6 with some small modifications, used by the Danish Army.[131]
Stridsvagn 122
Stridsvagn 122 of the Swedish army
Main article: Stridsvagn 122

The Stridsvagn 122 is a Swedish Army tank based on the Leopard 2 Improved, with 120 units built, 91 of which were licence-produced in Sweden. The tank features increased armour on the turret top and front hull, and improved command, control and fire control systems. Externally, it can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the much thicker crew hatches.[97] The Strv 122B, a variant equipped with modular AMAP composite armour from IBD Deisenroth, has increased 360° protection against threats like EFPs, RPGs and IEDs.[132] The width of 4 metres (13 ft) has been kept, while the weight increases by only 350 kilograms (770 lb).[132]
Leopard 2-140

In the early 1990s,[citation needed] Rheinmetall began development of a 140 mm smoothbore cannon for use in future tank designs. The new gun was intended to counter new Soviet tank developments, especially since the next generation of Soviet main battle tanks were rumoured to be armed with a 135 mm or 152 mm cannon. The new 140 mm cannon was part of a moderisation programme for the Leopard 2 known as the KWS III.[133][unreliable source?][134] Test firing of the new 140 mm cannon was conducted. Results showed that the gun had high penetration values, and had a muzzle velocity of around 2000 metres a second, with potential to be increased further. However, the 140 mm rounds were too heavy for the tank crew to handle effectively.[134]

The KWS III upgrade was to feature a new turret. This new turret was equipped with the planned 140 mm cannon and an autoloader. The introduction of an autoloader reduced the tank's crew to three members, as a dedicated loader was no longer needed. The gun's 32 rounds of ammunition were stored separate from the crew in a large compartment occupying the entire rear of the turret, in order to increase crew survivability in the event of a cook off. The turntable-style turret had the gun offset to the left side, due to the autoloader's lateral feeding of ammunition into the cannon breech.[citation needed] The turret was powered by an electro-hydraulic drive and also featured an IFIS battlefield management system. The crew was protected by an armoured capsule and ballistic protection for the hull was to be improved; planned protection level of the KWS III upgrade was to be equal to or better than the Leopard 2A5.[33][133][unreliable source?][134]

A total of 650 Leopard 2 KWS III tanks were originally projected to be purchased.[34] However, in 1995, the KWS III programme was cancelled due to changes in the political environment.[clarification needed]

Despite this, development still continued on the 140 mm cannon,[citation needed] with Rheinmetall coordinating with the British Royal Ordnance and French GIAT companies.[134] The 140 mm cannon was fitted to an old Leopard 2 prototype with the turret T19.[135] Counterweights were added to the rear of the turret to balance the increased weight of the 140 mm cannon; however, the modified Leopard 2 was not equipped with any other KWS III upgrades apart from the new gun. Live fire testing showed mixed results, where the 140 mm cannon showed superior penetrating power compared to the existing 120 mm cannon, but also demonstrated poorer handling characteristics.[133][unreliable source?][134] The lack of the autoloader on the prototype further hampered performance.[133][unreliable source?]
Leopard 2A6
German Leopard 2A6M with turret reversed

The Leopard 2A6 includes the addition of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/55 smoothbore gun and other changes. All German tank battalions of the "crisis intervention forces" are equipped with the A6. Canada purchased 20 Leopard 2A6s from the Netherlands. These were delivered in 2007.[136] Portugal also purchased 37 Leopard 2A6 from the Dutch in 2007, with delivery in 2008. In January 2014, Finland purchased 100 L2A6s, as well as munitions, simulators, and a ten-year supply of reserve parts from the Netherlands. The tanks are being delivered in batches between 2015-2019.[137]
Hellenic Army Leopard 2A6HEL in the streets of Athens

The Leopard 2A6M is a version of the 2A6 with enhanced mine protection under the chassis, and internal enhancements to improve crew survivability.[138] In the summer of 2007, Canada borrowed 20 A6Ms from Germany for deployment to Afghanistan. The Leopard 2 Hel is a derivative of the 2A6 that was ordered by the Greek Army in 2003 - the "Hel" stands for "Hellenic". The 170 tanks were to be delivered between 2006 and 2009. A total of 140 will be built in Greece by ELBO, which delivered the first units in late 2006.[139]

The Leopard 2A6M CAN is a Canadian variant of the Leopard 2A6M. Significant modifications include distinctive black boxes mounted on the rear of the turret bustle,[140] and stand-off slat armour.[141] The first tanks configured in this variant were 20 loaned from the German Bundeswehr in an effort to increase firepower and protection given to Canadian troops operating in the south of Afghanistan. The loaned tanks retain their German MG3 machine guns, the ex-Dutch tanks are also expected to retain their FN MAG machine guns due to commonality with Canadian stocks of C6 GPMG, itself a variant of the FN MAG.[142] Due to the loaned status of the first 20 tanks, the air conditioning unit originally could not be installed as only minimal changes could be made (the crew wore cooling vests instead, and the turret's electric drive generates less heat than the hydraulic drive of the older Leopard C2). The loaned German tanks will be kept by the Canadian Forces and may be further upgraded, while ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s were modified to German Leopard 2A6M specifications and used as restitution for the loaned tanks.[143] Canadian Leopard 2s in Afghanistan were later fitted with air conditioning units (a much needed commodity in the scorching desert of Afghanistan) and Saab's Barracuda camouflage mats, which also serve to reduce solar loading by 50 percent.[106]
Leopard 2E
Leopard 2E
Main article: Leopard 2E

The Leopard 2E is a derivative of the 2A6, with greater armour protection,[144] developed under a programme of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany. The programme was developed within the frame of collaboration decided in 1995 between the Defence Ministries of both countries, in which also was included the cession of use by a period of five years of 108 Leopard 2A4 from the German Army to the Spanish Army. However, this cession was extended up to 2016, and after that those tanks will be the sole property of the Spanish Army, as has been made public on 24 January 2006, then having been paid a total of 15,124,014 euros in ten yearly installments, giving the Spanish co-ownership from 2006. In 1998, the Spanish government agreed to contract 219 tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER (Bufalo) and 4 training vehicles. They chose Santa Bárbara Sistemas as the main contractor. The programme, with a budget of 1,939.4 million Euros, also includes the integrated logistical support, training courses for crew instructors and maintenance engineers and driving, turret, maintenance, aiming and shooting simulators. Deliveries of the first batch began in 2004.[citation needed]
Leopard 2 PSO
Leopard 2 PSO at Eurosatory 2006

The new Leopard 2 PSO (Peace Support Operations) variant is designed specially for urban warfare, which had been encountered in peacekeeping operations with increasing frequency. Therefore, the Leopard 2 PSO is equipped with more effective all-around protection, a secondary weapons station, improved reconnaissance ability, a bulldozer blade, a shorter gun barrel (for manoeuvring on urban streets at the expense of fire range), non-lethal armament, close-range surveillance ability (through camera systems), a searchlight and further changes to improve its perseverance and mobility in a built-up non-wide open area. These features are similar to the Tank Urban Survival Kit for the American M1A2 Abrams.[citation needed]
Leopard 2A7

The Leopard 2A7 is fundamentally different from the KMW variant 2A7+ and is not optimised for combat in urban terrain. A total of 20 vehicles are provided for converting. It involves former Dutch A6NL models returned by Canada to Germany. The original upgrade to A6M has been extended in coordination with Canada and includes a crew-compartment cooling-system from the Leopard 2 A6M-HEL series, a new 20 kW auxiliary power unit based on the Steyr Motors M12 TCA UI engine,[145] the Saab Barracuda Mobile Camouflage System (MCS) with Heat-Transfer Reduction (HTR CoolCam) system,[146] a field trial proven combat management and information system (IFIS: Integriertes Führungs- und Informationssystem), onboard network optimization with ultracapacitors in the chassis and turret, a SOTAS IP digital intercom system, a renewal of the fire suppression system in the crew compartment, and the retrofitting of Attica thermal imaging module in the commander optics. The weapon system is adapted for firing HE ammunition. It is also fitted for, but not with, additional passive side protection armour. The first Leopard 2A7 was handed over to the German Army in Munich on 10 December 2014. A total of 14 vehicles were produced for Tank Battalion 203, plus four more going to the Armoured Corps Training Centre and one vehicle at the Technical School for Land Systems and School for Technology of the Army. The last tank remains as a reference vehicle at KMW.[37]
Leopard 2A7+
Leopard 2A7+ at Eurosatory 2010

The Leopard 2A7+ was first shown to the public during the Eurosatory 2010, featuring the label "Developed by KMW – tested and qualified by German MoD". The Leopard 2A7+ has been tested by the Bundeswehr under the name UrbOp (urban operations).[citation needed]

The Leopard 2A7+ is designed to operate both in low intensity and high intensity conflicts.[147] The tank's protection has been increased by modular armour; the frontal protection has been improved with a dual-kit on the turret and hull front, while 360° protection against RPGs and mine protection increase the survivability of the tank in urban operations.[147] The modular armour's system components were first used by Canada in Afghanistan.[148] It can fire programmable HE munitions and the turret mounted MG3 has been replaced with a stabilised FLW 200 remotely controlled weapon station. The mobility, sustainability and situational awareness have also been improved.[147]

In December 2018, Hungary ordered 44 2A7+s, making them the second operator of the improved version, after Qatar.[61][62]
Engineering and driver training tanks
BPz3 "Büffel", German Army

Bergepanzer BPz3 Büffel (Gr. Buffalo)
The BPz3 armoured recovery vehicle includes both a bulldozer and a crane with integral winch, allowing it to approach damaged vehicles, even over rough and fought-over terrain, and tow them to safety. It is equipped with a machine gun for local self-defence, a smoke grenade launcher, and NBC protection. Like the tank, it is powered by a 1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW) diesel engine. In service with Germany (where it is also designated Büffel or Bergepanzer 3 for Salvage Tank 3), the Netherlands (who co-developed it and call it Buffel), Austria, Canada, Greece, Singapore, Spain (where it is called Leopard 2ER Búfalo), Sweden (in modified form as the Bgbv 120), and Switzerland (BPz3).[citation needed]

Panzerschnellbrücke 2
This vehicle, created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH, is an armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed from the Leopard 2 tank chassis. It is designed to carry a folding mobile bridge, which it can "launch" across a river. Once emplaced, the bridge is sturdy enough to support most vehicles, even other Leopard tanks. When the crossing is complete, the bridge-layer simply hooks up to the bridge and re-stows it.[citation needed]

Panzerschnellbrücke Leguan on Leopard 2 chassis, demoed by the German Army

Panzerschnellbrücke Leguan
This modular system combines a bridge module created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH with a tank chassis. The Bundeswehr is testing the Leguan on Leopard 2 chassis.[149]

Pionierpanzer 3 Kodiak
A combat engineering vehicle conversion of the Leopard 2, the Kodiak is used by Swiss Army (SKodiak), and is on order for the Dutch army and Swedish army.[150] While equipped with a bulldozer, excavator, and dual capstan winches, the Pionierpanzer 3 has no turret instead, a Remote Weapon Station is fitted. It rides on the Leopard 2 chassis with a built-up forward superstructure. The vehicle is used primarily for the clearance of obstacles (including minefields). The Dutch version will have additional bomblet protection for the crew compartments. Spain may procure 24 examples for the Spanish Army from converted Leopard 2A4 hulls. One vehicle has been trialled in Spain.[151]

Driver Training Tank (Fahrschulpanzer)
The Leopard 2 Driver Training Tank, as the name implies, is a non-combatant Leopard 2 for instructing soldiers in the finer points of handling the tank. The turret is supplanted by a weighted and fixed observation cab with forward and side-facing windows and a dummy gun. The instructor rides in this cab, with override controls for critical systems, and space is provided for two other students to observe.[citation needed]

Leopard 2R
Heavy mine breaching vehicle developed by Patria for the Finnish Army, based on the Leopard 2A4. Ten vehicles were converted. The vehicles are equipped with a mine-plough or a dozer blade, and an automated marking system.[152][153]

Leopard 2L
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed by KMW and Patria for the Finnish Army. Ten Finnish 2A4 tanks were re-built to carry the LEGUAN bridge.[152][153]

WISENT 2
Multi-purpose, Leopard 2 based Armoured Support Vehicle developed by Flensburger Fahrzeugbau. The vehicle's modular design allows it to be converted quickly from an Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV) to an Armoured Engineer Vehicle (AEV) in less than five hours.[154] Orders placed by Canada, Norway, Qatar, UAE & Saudi Arabia.[citation needed]

Technical data
Technical data[155] Description Leopard 2A4 Leopard 2A5 Leopard 2A6/A6M
Crew: 4
Engine: MTU MB 873 Ka-501 12-cylinder twin-turbocharged diesel engine
Displacement: Bore × stroke: 170 × 175 mm, 47,666 cm3 displacement
Power output: 1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW), rpm: 2,600/min
Torque output: 4,700 Nm (3,466 lb·ft), rpm: 1,600–1,700/min
Transmission: Hydro-mechanical control, reversing and steering gear HSWL 354 with combined hydrodynamic-mechanical service brake, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Suspension system: Torsion bar spring mounted support roller drive with hydraulic dampers
Length
Turret forward: 9,670 mm 10,970 mm
Width: 3,700 mm 3,760 mm
Height: 2,790 mm 3,030 mm
Ground clearance: 540 mm
Wading depth without preparation: 1,200 mm
Wading depth with snorkel: 4,000 mm
Trench passability: 3,000 mm
Climbing ability: 1,100 mm
Empty weight: 52 t 57.3 t 57.6 t
A6M 60.2 t
Combat weight: 55.15 t 59.5 t A6 59.9 t (maximum mass; 61.7 t),
A6M 62.5 t
Maximum speed: 68 km/h; backwards 31 km/h
Fuel capacity: 1,160 liters (limited to 900 liters when not in battle)
Fuel consumption and operating range:

Road: ca. 340 l/100 km, ca. 340 km
Terrain: ca. 530 l/100 km, ca. 220 km
Average: ca. 410 l/100 km, ca. 280 km
Static test: 12.5 l/h, 72–93 hours (with 900–1,160 liters capacity)
Rotation time (360°): 10 seconds
Armament: Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun L/44 and 2 machine guns Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun L/55 and 2 machine guns
Turret weight: 16 t 21 t
Turret rotation time: 360° in 9 seconds (electric)
Operators

Post 1945 DevelopmentsEdit
kusoCartoon_13812861896961_.jpgMecha being size Transport Stages Vehicle from space.It is dropped by Command Center from its bays and hydraulic arms let go to its verniers to hover and land on ground.It ends up back in its bay to blast thrusters.It travels on the land and transports compliment and has instrument sensors and computers.It has defenses and can attack with firing missiles.It deploy troops and a team.They have armor in the transport vehicle.30ft high robot mecha beings.It is protected from invasion.Go .1 mach.It is a monuverable vehicle that like a base can fire missiles at enemies and laser fire at heavy level.kusoCartoon_13815476121067_.jpgMeant for deploying troops on battleground and destroying enemy mechas and robots.It has armor.And to recover each unit and bring them back to fight over again.
The successful use of missiles in the latter part of the Second World War led to the belief that the gun would soon be obsolete as an artillery weapon. The missile has been adopted for air defence but experience in the limited wars since 1945 has shown a continuing need for the conventional gun. Britain relies entirely on the gun for close and medium support artillery, using the 105-millimetre light gun which is air-transportable, and the Abbot and M-109 self-propelled guns. The missile regiments of the British Army of the Rhine are equipped with the US Lance surface-to-surface guided missile system which can deliver tactical nuclear warheads to a range of 120 km. Britain and other NATO countries have ordered the new Lance 'cluster' warhead which contains 836 small bombs and is capable of saturating an area 1 km in diameter.
Ei12ia89t1d5l1scvkkvjgd125276336.jpg-finalZarco Macross Giant Turret Gun
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen Armada
63orjtf446rbjff601oapmkvb4124869.jpg-finalZarco Macross "Ant" Walker
Queen ArmadaAdded by Queen ArmadakusoCartoon_13796412125305_.jpgkusoCartoon_13796413264405_.jpgRobots can be used in a long range missile spike.They can deliver heavy artillery and can fly in space.They can land on ground and what role demanded to do.They are equipped infantry.Firepower and effectiveness.
"Ant" Walker is a mecha transport that destroys things army on the land.It has launchers on leg hardpoints which are big missiles,AA laser battery and Heavy HEL Ion cannons.Transport army units and troops,deploy artillery and projects force field on its moveable panel retractable landing bridge from hangar bays.Mecha beings can be deployed.Primal armor design.It has enigmatech systems from its powercore and computer core.It is towering above 7 storeys and within 1000meters long.Panels sides and bay from upper rear.It has verniers to land and fly to space with antigravity sytems go back to its transport warship.Countermeasures.Sensors and instruments in army systems for outer space and alien world BETA and imagery and tracking.CW and Space WMD.Zarco Macross Giant Turret Gun is an energy cannon that fires recoil energy fire and live rounds.Kinetic rounds and Kinetic energy.It is hundred's feet long and towering a turret.Delivery of energy fire and its enigmatech system defenses force field.Energy battery that are on Macross bases.Range is in Space KM and sattelite network.It has teads to move at speed of 70 Km per hour.CW rounds.Teleportation warfare.Transported.kusoCartoon_13630398450325_.jpg
http://tfwiki.net/wiki/Category:Autobots http://tfumux.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Autobots http://www.space.com/ http://tfwiki.net/wiki/Guardian_%28GoBots%29 http://machinerobo.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Guardians http://transformersprime.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Autobots http://tfumux.wikia.com/wiki/GoBots http://www.space.ca/ http://space.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/ http://www.edge.ca/ http://www.galaxie.ca/en_CA/ http://www.muchmusic.com/channels/muchloud/ http://www.metalblade.com/europe/ http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:48BD3C43-1CE7-45E0-BA85-18E3FA0D4272.jpg http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2013-11-16_19.08.54.jpg http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2013-11-16_19.10.27.jpg http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2013-12-11_23.49.12.jpg http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/File:2014-07-01_22.28.50.jpg

http://tfwiki.net/wiki/Warpath_%28G1%29

http://killzone.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Vehicles https://killzone.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Helghast https://sectorw.wikia.com/wiki/Combine

https://medalofhonor.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Vehicles https://callofduty.wikia.com/wiki/German_Military

https://medalofhonor.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Support_Actions

https://acecombat.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Ground_Vehicles http://ww2db.com/weapon.php?list=A

http://military.discovery.com/technology/vehicles/tanks/tanks.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missiles

http://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/index.asp http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Zarconian_Terminator_Dark_Nebula

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