F/A-18 Hornet
images.jpegThe McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 is a multirole fighter designed for aircraft carrier duty and is the first tactical aircraft initially designed to carry out both air-to-air and air-to-ground missions. The U.S. Marines ordered it as an F-18 fighter and the Navy as an A-18 attack aircraft. It can switch roles easily and can also be adapted for photoreconnaissance and electronic countermeasure missions.2013-11-16%2018.40.05%20%282%29.jpg

The resilient F/A-18 Hornet was the first aircraft to have carbon fiber wings and the first tactical jet fighter to use digital fly-by-wire flight controls. Variants included a two-seater, an improved fighter, a reconnaissance aircraft and a night-attack fighter.

Since the first Hornet entered service in 1980, McDonnell Douglas built over 1,200. Overseas, Hornets served with the Australian, Canadian, Spanish, Kuwaiti, Swiss, Finnish and Malaysian air forces. In November 1986, the 40th anniversary of the Navy's Blue Angels, the demonstration squadron replaced its A-4 Skyhawks with F/A-18 Hornets. They saw use as a show aircraft the following season.

Hornets entered active duty in January 1983. In 1986, Hornets on the USS Coral Sea flew their first combat missions. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, while performing an air-to-ground mission, Hornets destroyed two Iraqi MiG-21s in air-to-air combat. During 2001, Hornets provided around-the-clock battlefield coverage in the Afghanistan theater of operations.
The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet made its first flight in November 1995. The Super Hornet is an advanced version of the combat-proven F/A-18 Hornet and is produced in the single-seat E model and the two-seat F model. The F/A-18E/F is 25 percent larger than the original Hornet and has increased maneuverability, range, payload and more powerful engines. It entered operational service with the U.S. Navy in 1999 and flew its first combat missions in 2002.
The Super Hornet received the 1999 Robert J. Collier Trophy. By the end of 2005, more than 300 had been delivered, and production was planned for at least 460 Super Hornets through 2011.
Specifications First flight: Nov. 18, 1978
Wingspan: 37 feet 5 inches
Length: 56 feet
Height: 15 feet 3.5 inches
Takeoff weight: Fighter, 36,710 pounds; attack, 49,224 pounds
Speed: 1,360 mph plus
Ceiling: 50,000 feet
Power plant: Two 16,000-pound-thrust GE F404-GE-400 low-bypass turbofan engines
Accommodation: One crew (F/A-18A/C); two crew (F/A-18B/D)
Armament: One 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan six-barrel cannon with 570 rounds, plus up to 17,000 pounds ordnance, including bombs, rockets, missiles and drop tanks on nine external points

F/A-18A/B Hornet F/A-18C/D Hornet F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" Features of the F/A-18 E/F F/A-18G "Growler" Specifications External Dimensions
Weights and Loadings Performance Images
F/A-18 Images
F/A-18E/F Images Sources and Resources

500px-TF2F-18_4.jpgThe F/A-18 "Hornet" is a single- and two-seat, twin engine, multi-mission fighter/attack aircraft that can operate from either aircraft carriers or land bases. The F/A-18 fills a variety of roles: air superiority, fighter escort, suppression of enemy air defenses, reconnaissance, forward air control, close and deep air support, and day and night strike missions. The F/A-18 Hornet replaced the F-4 Phantom II fighter and A-7 Corsair II light attack jet, and also replaced the A-6 Intruder as these aircraft were retired during the 1990s.
kusoCartoon_13650229988028_.jpgIt will be a [[[space|space superiority fighter.Electronics built internally whole design to make it a module.It will be able to combiner with the pilot Zarconian Macross pilot troop.It will be made complicated and able to carry and deliver its space weapons,missiles and payload and rockets.It will have mm laser guns and force field barrier.It will be like a module.It will carry out manpowering and stocking up on Macross problems.It will carry out its role on bases and carrier and our SDF-1.Built for complications as spacefighters.This design space fighters Zarco Macross.
The F/A-18 has a digital control-by-wire flight control system which provides excellent handling qualities, and allows pilots to learn to fly the airplane with relative ease. At the same time, this system provides exceptional maneuverability and allows the pilot to concentrate on operating the weapons system. A solid thrust-to-weight ratio and superior turn characteristics combined with energy sustainability, enable the F/A-18 to hold its own against any adversary. The power to maintain evasive action is what many pilots consider the Hornet's finest trait. In addition, the F/A-18 was also the Navy's first tactical jet aircraft to incorporate a digital, MUX bus architecture for the entire system's avionics suite. The benefit of this design feature is that the F/A-18 has been relatively easy to upgrade on a regular, affordable basis.

The F/A-18 has proven to be an ideal component of the carrier based tactical aviation equation over its 15 years of operational experience. The only F/A-18 characteristic found to be marginally adequate by battle group commanders, outside experts, and even the men who fly the Hornet, is its range when flown on certain strike mission profiles. However, the inadequacy is managed well with organic and joint tanking assets.
F/A-18A/B Hornet Return to Top
While the general configuration of the YF-17 was retained, the F-18 became a completely new airplane. To meet the single-place fighter and attack mission capability, full use was made of new technology in digital computers. Coupled with cathode ray tubes for cockpit displays and appropriate controls based on thorough pilot evaluations in simulators, a single airplane and subsystems configuration for both missions was evolved During development, two-place trainer versions were added, to be built in limited numbers as TF/A-18s, intermingled with the basic F/As. Minimum changes were made to incorporate the second cockpit, with the two-seat airplanes retaining the ability to perform combat missions. Making the first flight in November 1978, the F/A-18 and its two-place derivative [subsequently redesignated the F/A-18B] underwent most of their development testing at the Naval Air Test Center under the new single-site testing concept. While much attention was focused on development problems, these were largely typical of those in any new program, with their resolution being part of the development process. For the most part, these occurred in the basic aircraft hardware rather than in the digital electronic systems.

The original F/A-18A (single seat) and F/A-18B (dual seat) became operational in 1983 replacing Navy and Marine Corps F-4s and A-7s. It quickly became the battle group commander's mainstay because of its capability, versatility and availability. Reliability and ease of maintenance were emphasized in its design, and F/A-18s have consistently flown three times more hours without failure than other Navy tactical aircraft, while requiring half the maintenance time.

The Hornet has been battle tested and has proved itself to be exactly what its designers intended: a highly reliable and versatile strike fighter. The F/A-18 played an important role in the 1986 strikes against Libya. Flying from USS CORAL SEA (CV 43), F/A-18s launched high-speed anti-radiation missiles (HARMs) against Libyan air defense radars and missile sites, effectively silencing them during the attacks on Benghazi facilities.
F/A-18C/D Hornet Return to Top

Following a successful run of more than 400 A and B models, the US Navy began taking fleet deliveries of improved F/A-18C (single seat) and F/A-18D (dual seat) models in September 1987. These Hornets carry the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) and the infrared imaging Maverick air-to-ground missile. Two years later, the C/D models came with improved night attack capabilities. The new components included a navigation forward looking infrared (NAVFLIR) pod, a raster head-up display, night vision goggles, special cockpit lighting compatible with the night vision devices, a digital color moving map and an independent multipurpose color display.

F/A-18Cs have synthetic aperture ground mapping radar with a doppler beam sharpening mode to generate ground maps. This ground mapping capability that permits crews to locate and attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility or to precisely update the aircraft's location relative to targets during the approach, a capability that improves bombing accuracy. New production F/A-18Cs received the APG-73 radar upgrade radars starting in 1994, providing more precise and clear radar displays.

The F/A-18C Nigh Attack Hornet has a pod-mounted Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal imaging navigation set, a Loral AN/AAS-38 Nite Hawk FLIR targeting pod, and GEC Cat's Eyes pilot's night vision goggles. Some 48 F/A-18D two-seat Hornets are configured as the F/A-18D (RC) reconnaissance version, with the M61A1 cannon replaced by a pallet-mounted electro-optical suite comprising a blister-mounted IR linescan and two roll-stabilized sensor units, with all of these units recording onto video tape.

On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, two F/A-18s, each carrying four 2,000 lb. bombs, shot down two Iraqi MiGs and then proceeded to deliver their bombs on target. Throughout the Gulf War, squadrons of U.S. Navy, Marine and Canadian F/A-18s operated around the clock, setting records daily in reliability, survivability and ton-miles of ordnance delivered.
The Navy announced 18 May 1998 that its East Coast F/A-18 squadrons will relocate to Naval Air Station Oceana in Virginia Beach VA and Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort in Beaufort, SC. The jets will move from Naval Air Station Cecil Field in Jacksonville FL which was ordered closed by the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. Nine operational squadrons and the Fleet Replacement Squadron — a total of 156 planes — will move to Oceana. Two squadrons totaling 24 planes will move to Beaufort. The first squadron will move in the fall of 1998 and all 11 fleet squadrons and the Fleet Replacement Squadron completed their moves by October 1999.
Throughout its service, annual upgrades to F/A-18 weapon systems, sensors, etc. continued. The latest lot of the F/A-18C/D has grown to be far more capable (night attack, precision strike, low observable technologies, etc.) than the original F/A-18A/B; however, by 1991, it was becoming clear that avionics cooling, electrical, and space constraints would begin to limit future growth. Additionally, another operational deficiency was beginning to develop. As the F/A-18C/D empty weight increased the aircraft were returning to the carrier with less than optimal reserve fuel and/or unexpended weapons. The additional range and "bring back" is not as essential to shore based operations. F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft will fly for years with the U.S. Marine Corps and eight international customers: Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Spain, Switzerland and Thailand. Although the F/A-18C/D's future growth is now limited, it will also continue to fill a critical role in the U.S. Navy's carrier battle group for many years to come and will be an excellent complement to the larger, longer range, more capable F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" Return to Top
The multi-mission F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" strike fighter is an upgrade of the combat-proven night strike F/A-18C/D. The Super Hornet will provide the battle group commander with a platform that has range, endurance, and ordnance carriage capabilities comparable to the A-6 which have been retired. The F/A-18E/F aircraft are 4.2 feet longer than earlier Hornets, have a 25% larger wing area, and carry 33% more internal fuel which will effectively increase mission range by 41% and endurance by 50%. The Super Hornet also incorporates two additional weapon stations. This allows for increased payload flexibility by mixing and matching air-to-air and/or air-to-ground ordnance. The aircraft can also carry the complete complement of "smart" weapons, including the newest joint weapons such as JDAM and JSOW.

The Super Hornet can carry approximately 17,750 pounds (8,032 kg) of external load on eleven stations. It has an all-weather air-to-air radar and a control system for accurate delivery of conventional or guided weapons. There are two wing tip stations, four inboard wing stations for fuel tanks or air-to-ground weapons, two nacelle fuselage stations for Sparrows or sensor pods, and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons. An internal 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon is mounted in the nose.

Carrier recovery payload is increased to 9,000 pounds, and its engine thrust from 36,000 pounds to 44,000 pounds utilizing two General Electric F414 turbo-fan engines. Although the more recent F/A-18C/D aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was designed from the outset to optimize this and other survivability enhancements.
The Hughes Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infra-Red (ATFLIR), the baseline infrared system for the F/A-18 E/F, will also be deployed on earlier model F/A-18s. The Hughes pod features both navigation and infrared targeting systems, incorporating third generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) staring focal plane technology.
Although 41% interdiction mission range increase may be the most notable F/A-18E/F improvement, the ability to recover aboard with optimal reserve fuel and a load of precision strike weapons, is of equal importance to the battle group commander. The growth potential of the F/A-18E/F is more important to allow flexible employment strategies in future years. If an electronically scanned array antenna or another installation-sensitive sensor or weapon system becomes available, the F/A-18E/F has the space, power and cooling to accommodate it. Although the more recent F/A-18C/D aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was designed from the outset to optimize this and other survivability enhancements. The all-F/A-18C/D/E/F air wing brings an increase in capability to the carrier battle group while ensuring the potential to take advantage of technological advances for years to come.

Features of the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet: Return to Top

90% Common F/A-18C/D Avionics: Avionics and software have a 90 percent commonality with current F/A-18C/Ds. However, the F/A-18E/F cockpit features a touch-sensitive, upfront control display; a larger, liquid crystal multipurpose color display; and a new engine fuel display.
34 in. Fuselage Extension: The fuselage is slightly longer - the result of a 34-inch extension.
Two Additional Multi-Mission Weapons Stations: Super Hornet has two additional weapons stations, bringing the total to 11. For aircraft carrier operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship.
25% Larger Wing: A full 25 percent bigger than its predecessor, Super Hornet has nearly half as many parts.
35% Higher Thrust Engines: Increased engine power comes from the F414-GE-400, an advanced derivative of the Hornet's current F404 engine family. The F414 produces 35 percent more thrust and improves overall mission performance. Enlarged air inlets provide increased airflow to the engines.
33% Additional Internal Fuel: Structural changes to the airframe increase internal fuel capacity by 3,600 pounds, or about 33 percent. This extends the Hornet's mission radius by up to 40 percent.

Roll-out of the first Super Hornet occurred in September 1995, and it flew for the first time in November 1995, ahead of schedule and nearly 1,000 pounds under specified weight. In January 1997, the Super Hornet successfully conducted its initial sea trials on board the Navy's newest aircraft carrier, USS JOHN C. STENNIS (CVN 74).
The Navy is planning to procure a minimum of 548 Super Hornets, and possibly as many as 1,000. These numbers could vary depending on the progress of the Joint Strike Fighter Program. As part of the Quadrennial Defence Review (QDR) production of the Super Hornet was cut from 1000 to 548 units. Production of the aircraft commenced in FY 1997, and it is expected to attain initial operational capability (IOC) in FY 2001. Twelve aircraft were funded in FY 1997; procurement numbers increase to 20 in FY 1998, 30 in FY 1999, and reach a final maximum rate of 48 per year in FY 2001.
F/A-18G "Growler" Return to Top
The EA-6B will begin retirement in the 2010 timeframe, after a career that exceeded 40 years of deployments in support of USN, USMC, and USAF strike forces. As of early 2000, Defense Department planning for replacing the EA-6B Prowler include a scheme under which the Navy would buy an F/A-18G "Growler" — an F/A-18E/F modified for escort and close-in jamming. The Air Force would provide standoff jamming with modified EB-52s or EB-1s, and close-in jamming with unmanned air vehicles such as the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk or General Atomics Predator.

Specifications Return to Top

Boeing [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace] and
Northrop Grumman (Airframe),
General Electric (Engines), and
Hughes (Radar)
Hornet F/A-18E/F
Super Hornet
Power Plant Two F404-GE-402 afterburning engines, each in the 18,000 pound thrust class, which results in a combat thrust-to-weight ratio greater than 1-to-1. Depending on the mission and loading, combat radius is greater than 500 nautical miles. Twin F414-GE-400 engines, each in the 22,000 pound thrust class. On an interdiction mission, the E/F will fly up to 40 % further than the C/D.

The F/A-18C and F/A-18E are single seat aircraft.
The D and F models are flown by two crew members.
The aft seat in the D and F may be configured with a stick and throttle for the training environment (or without when crewed with a Weapons System Officer).


F/A-18C maximum speed at level flight in altitudes of 36,089 ft.
Mach 1.7

F/A-18E maximum speed at level flight in altitudes of 36,089 ft.
Mach 1.6


F/A-18C/D can carry up to 13,700 pounds of external ordnance.
Weapon stations include: two wingtip stations for Sidewinders; two outboard wing stations for air-to-air or air-to-ground weapons; two inboard wing stations for fuel tanks, air-to-air, or air-to-ground weapons; two nacelle fuselage stations for AMRAAMs, Sparrows, or sensor pods; and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons.
M61 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary cannon with 520 rounds of 20mm ammunition is internally mounted in the nose
AIM-9 Sidewinder
AIM-7F Sparrow
AGM-65E Maverick
AGM-84 Harpoon
10 CBU-87
10 CBU-89
B-57 or B-61 Nuclear bomb

F/A-18E/F can carry up to 17,750 pounds of external ordnance; two additional wing store stations have been added.boeing_f_a-18f_super_hornet_cutaway_drawing_1571255.jpg

Mission and Capabilities

The F/A-18 Hornet can perform both air-to-air and air-to-ground missions.
Cockpit displays and mission avionics are thoroughly integrated to enhance crew situational awareness and mission capability in high threat, adverse weather/night environments.
Cockpits are night vision goggle compatible.
Multi-Sensor Integration and advanced data link capabilities further enhance situational awareness.

The E/F model will be able to perform a strike tanker mission while carrying a self-protection air-to-air missile loadout.
The E/F model will also have greater payload flexibility, increased mission radius, survivability, payload bring back, and a substantial avionics growth potential.

Unit cost $FY98
[Total Program] $39.5 million. $60 million
Program Summary

F/A-18A/B first entered operational service with the USN and USMC in 1982.
Since 1982, more than 1,458 F/A-18s have been procured for the USN and USMC and for the armed services in Canada, Australia, Spain, Kuwait, Switzerland, Finland, and Malaysia.In 1987, the upgraded C/D model (with enhanced mission avionics) was introduced and upgraded with a night/adverse weather mission capability, On Board Oxygen Generating System, APG-73 Radar Upgrade, enhanced performance F404-GE-402 engines, and upgraded mission computers.
f18comp.gif The first flight of the F/A-18E/F occurred in December 1995; operational deliveries are scheduled for late 1999.
External Dimensions Return to Top
Wing span 11.43 m
Wing span over missiles 12.31 m
Wing chord (at root) 4.04 m
Wing chord (at tip) 1.68 m
Wing aspect ratio 3.52
Width, wings folded 8.38 m
Length overall 17.07 m
Height overall 4.66 m
Tailplane span 6.58 m
Distance between fin tips 3.60 m
Wheel track 3.11 m
Wheelbase 5.42 m

Wing span over missiles 13.62 meters
Wing aspect ratio 4.00
Width wings folded 9.32 m
Length overall 18.31 m
Height overall 4.88 m

Wings, gross 37.16 m2
Ailerons (total) 2.27 m2
Leading-edge flaps (total) 4.50 m2
Trailing-edge flaps (total) 5.75 m2
Fins (total) 9.68 m2
Rudders (total) 1.45 m2
Tailerons (total) 8.18 m2

Wings, gross 46.45 sq. meters
Weights and Loadings Return to Top

Weight empty 10,810 kg
Maximum fuel weight:

Internal (JP5)

4,926 kg

External: F/A-18 (JP5)

3,053 kg

CF-18 (JP4)

4,245 kg
Maximum external stores load 7,031 kg
Take off weight:

Fighter mission

16,651 kg

Attack mission

Approx 23,541 kg


Approx 25,401 kg
Maximum wing loading (attack mission) 156,80 kg/kN

Weight, empty
Design target 13.387 kg
Specification limit 13.865 kg
Maximum fuel weight:


6.531 kg

External (JP5)

4.436 kg

Maximum external stores load (JP5)

8.051 kg
T-O weight, attack mission 29.937 kg
Maximum wing loading 620.0 kg/m2
Maximum power loading 147.1 kg /kN
Performance (At Maximum Takeoff Weight) Return to Top

Max level speed More than Mach 1.8
Max speed, intermediate power More than Mach 1.0
Approach speed 134 knots
Acceleration from 460 knots to 920 knots at 10,670 m under 2 min
Combat ceiling approx 15,240 m
T-O run Less than 427 m
Minimum wind over deck:


35 knots


19 knots
Combat radius, interdiction, hi-lo-lo-hi 290 nm
Combat endurance, CAP 150 nm from aircraft carrier 1 h 45 min
Ferry range, unrefueled More than 1,800 nm

Maximum level speed at altitude more than Mach 1.8
Combat ceiling 13,865 m
Minimum wind over deck:


30 knots


15 knots
Combat radius specification:

Interdiction with four 1,000 lb bombs, two Sidewinders,
and two 1,818 liter (480 U.S. gallon: 400 Imp gallon) external tanks,
navigation FLIR and targeting FLIR: Forward Looking Infra-Red

390 nm

Fighter escort with two Sidewinders and two AMRAAMs

410 nm
Combat endurance: maritime air superiority, six AAMs,
three 1,818 liter external tanks, 150 nm from aircraft carrier. 2h 1

82 88 87 89 10 12 24 JDAM 9 120 MM

2 2 500


2 2 500


2 2 500


2 2 500


2 2 500


2 2 500

2 2 500

2 2 2 500

2 6 500

8 500
F/A18-E/F Super Hornet Main Navy Homepage
Navy Fact File: F/A-18 Hornet
Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress, updated October 2, 2008 - Congressional Research Service Report
F/A - 18E/F PROGRAM - Navy Acqusition Reform
Naval Technology -F/A-18E/F
F/A-18 Hornet(C/D) @ Boeing)
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet @ Boeing
F/A-18 Hornet @ Northrop-Grumman
Boeing F-18 Hornet @ Fighter Tactics Academy
FA-18E/F vs. A-6E comparison From: moc.loa|562tenroh#moc.loa|562tenroh (HORNET265)
F/A-18E/F DEVELOPMENT Congressional Record (Senate - October 23, 1991)
F/A-18E/F DEVELOPMENT Mr. D'AMATO - Congressional Record (Senate - May 05, 1992)
F/A-18E/F Mr. BOND -Congressional Record (Senate - June 30, 1992)
THE NAVY'S F/A-18E/F SUPER HORNET PROGRAM Mr. FEINGOLD Congressional Record (Senate - March 23, 1998)
0204136N F/A-18 SQUADRONS FY98 R&D Budget Request
F/A-18 E/F excerpts - House National Security Committee Authorization Act for FY 1998
F/A-18E/F Update Chuck Spinney — 01 Apr 1998
F/A-18E/F — Good to Go? Chuck Spinney — 02 Apr 1998
First Super Hornet squadron ready to stand up Navy News Service 04/99 (Jan. 20, 1999)
Super Hornet enters operational evaluation NAVY WIRE SERVICE (NWS) - 7 June 1999 - The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, entered operational evaluation (OPEVAL) May 27. OPEVAL is scheduled to last six months and will be conducted by an all-Navy independent test team.
The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet: A Test Pilot Dispels The Myths By CDR Rob Niewoehner — 14 April 1999 — There has been a great deal of interest recently in the press regarding the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program, its progress through the flight test phase, and the requirements for the airplane in preparation for operational test.
F/A-18 Super Hornet development testing complete The Weaponeer 10 June 1999 — Following more than 270 test flights and more than 2,000 laboratory test hours, the F/A-18 Advanced Weapons Laboratory (AWL) at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division concluded several years' contribution to the development of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
Super Hornet Multi-Year Procurement Approved F/A-18 Public Affairs Office October 28, 1999 — President Clinton signed the fiscal 2000 Defense Appropriations Bill. Included in the Bill is approval for a multi-year procurement of 222 F/A-18E/F Super Hornets over the next five years.
Final LRIP 1 Super Hornet Delivered 6 Weeks Early F/A-18 Public Affairs Office 10 Nov 1999 — The last of the first 12 low-rate initial production (LRIP) Super Hornets was delivered to the U.S. Navy on November 9, six weeks ahead of schedule.
"SUPER HORNET" OPERATIONAL EVALUATION RESULTS ANNOUNCED February 15, 2000 - Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Jay Johnson, stated "The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is the cornerstone of the future of naval aviation. The superb performance demonstrated throughout its comprehensive operational evaluation was just what we expected."
DoD Special Briefing on "SUPER HORNET" Operation Evaluation Results February 15, 2000 — The results were the best we could hope for. The airplane was rated operationally effective and operationally suitable. This is the highest grade the aircraft could receive. We believe we have a very mature aircraft here; we believe we have an aircraft that's ready for the fleet.
Workload makes Hornet jets candidates for refurbishing, Stars and Stripes, 08 September 2000 — The high operations tempo of recent years has pushed hundreds of the Navy's F/A-18 Hornet attack jets toward the end of their service life faster than anticipated and has sparked a 12-year, $878 million program to keep the workhorse tactical aircraft flying.
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