Enemy Empires

http://macross.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/R.E.F._SUS_enemy_of https://future.wikia.com/wiki/Category:World_War_III

https://terminator.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/The_Real_WW3_Countries_in_Terminator

https://acecombat.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/The_Real_WW3_Countries

https://medalofhonor.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/The_Real_WW3_Countries https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotech_Wars
http://www.oocities.org/tokyo/spa/5972/ http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Category:Conflicts http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Conflicts http://en.battlestarwiki.org/wiki/Category:Conflicts https://stargate.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Wars http://transformers.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Wars
http://gundam.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Universal_Century_conflicts http://terminator.wikia.com/wiki/Category:The_War_Against_The_Machines
http://callofduty.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Conflicts http://killzone.wikia.com/wiki/Category:History_of_Killzone http://sectorw.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Military_conflicts
Fleet of the Robotech Expeditionary Force

146 weeks ago kusoCartoon_13787564575603_.jpg

[1]Fleet of the Robotech Expeditionary Force and the flagship SDF-3 -Pioneer and SDF-4 Liberator, four Shimakaze class battlecruisers, approximately 40+ Ikazuchi class carriers, several hundred Garfish class light cruisers and Severel thousands of VFA-6 Alpha and VFB-9 Beta fighters.In 2029, the Second Robotech War began when the Robotech Masters and their entire spacefleet arrive in Earth orbit to reclaim the protoculture matrix in the ruins of the SDF-1. The war lasts for over a year and although the Masters are defeated, the United Earth Government (UEG) is crippled and the United Earth Forces (included the elite Army of the Southern Cross) suffer massive losses. The REF was unable to send significant aid back to Earth due to its war with the Invid. When the Invid invaded Earth in 2031, marking the start of the Third Robotech War, the remaining military forces on Earth were easily defeated. The REF learns that Earth has fallen to the Invid when a group of survivors from the Southern Cross refugees who escaped from Earth after acquiring one of the few remaining operational spacecraft.A reconnaissance mission from SDF-3 fights through the alien war fleet and is rescued by the 15th Squad, only to bring word that no aid will be coming.
Princess Niriyuh Khan Armada
Added by Queen Armada

This was a major blunder by the Earth Forces.They crashed all of the veritechs that could have changed the war.All of the secret and advanced technology smashed into the Masters Ship.That technology could have changed the war.Instead of massively relying on REF the earth could have amassed their own fighter.They could have been ordered not to fight and to land on earth and unload their veritechs and update about the current REF.Building new technology.Cutting the Southern Cross and Earth from upgrading themselves.Invid had a fest battling the Hovertanks.Failure and blunder.Masters cut them off with ease and not to face new veritechs.
The Pioneer Mission Part One: Equipment and Mecha Of The Early Pioneer Mission
The Pioneer Mission and REF is subject to much mystery and debate, mainly for reasons that only the tail end of its technological era is ever seen, which leads many to believe that was what they possessed throughout their entire mission. This is fallacy for these two primary reasons:

1. If the Earth forces possessed Cyclones, Alpha and Beta fighters as far back as 2022-23, when the SDF-3 launched, why doesnt the Southern Cross have them in their inventory? The short answer is they would, and the long answer would be because its not cost effective to equip your primary fighting forces with two completely different types of weapon systems. Even if their missions were different, The ASC focusing on the defense of Earth, with the Pioneer Mission obviously focusing on the stars. Such diversity in weapons manufacture is also un-realistic so soon after the near total destruction of human life on Earth, not to mention the majority of the technological and manufacturing infrastructure of the planet.

2. The mecha and ships of the Southern Cross are more suited to fighting a someone like the Zentraedi, which is what the PM more than likely planned on facing during their mission, so they would have developed weapons based on the lessons learned during the First War. The Battloids have expentional speed and agility, the perfect counter for the Zentraedi pods, while the VHTs provide quick reaction capability mixed with decent firepower, making them THE best tool for facing the Zentraedis primarily ground based mecha force of battlepods, and to a lesser extent power armor, which is more than likely what the AJAX was intended to be a counter to. The ships of the ASC also follow a similar philosophy, being much smaller than the old RDF designs, but packing more firepower and agility, enabling them to evade Zentraedi capital ship weapons with relative ease.

The most likely 2014-2023 PM mecha compliment is a mix of Macross era Veritechs and destroids, with the Southern Cross era mecha coming into service around the late teens, as it would take time for designs to be have been developed with the lessons of the War, and perhaps even longer to get suitable production assets online. In terms of interstellar transport and combat assets, the most likely and econimicaly feasible solution, at least for the time, would be refit Zentraedi ships. Of course, considering Earths state and the sorry condition of the RFS *Factory Satellite* it wouldnt be within the Pioneer Missions capabilities to get anything larger than a Thuverl Salan *Destroyer* functional for such a mission. Considering the number of Tou Redirs *Scout Ship* in existence, and the high probability that many survived reasonably intact, the RFS could have been easily used in its limited capacity to refit a sizable contingent of said ships to the PM standard. What is that standard you might ask? First off the living accommodations would have to be altered to be able to support a mostly if not all micronized crew. There were more than likely ships of the fleet that were composed entirely of full sized Zentraedi, which would help explain their absence on Earth in later eras, as well as give them a way to continue their favored way of life. This would also give the Mission a sizable contingent of veterans.

The later ships launched as part of the Pioneer Mission were likely early bloc ASC designs, perhaps the first wave of the ships built; with modifications for long duration deep space travel, as the ASC would not have such a requirement. The Tokugawa that Major Carpenter commanded was more than likely an early bloc command ship launched as perhaps even as early as 2014, meaning it could have been intended to be one of the escorts of the SDF-2, or serve its own purpose as a command ship for PM flotillas. The latter seems to hold less water, as when the ship returns to Earth, it lacks any sort of other ships escorting it. No command ship would ever deploy alone, even one with substantial firepower, theyre simply too important logistically and strategically. Carpenters ship was more than likely a prototype for what was intended to be the main vessel of the Mission, a super long range exploratory vessel capable of self sustenance for long periods, perhaps even the entire fifteen years it was away from Earth.

http://robotechcampaigns.150m.com/tothestarsbook.html
Fleet of the Robotech Expeditionary Force

146 weeks ago

[1]Fleet of the Robotech Expeditionary Force and the flagship SDF-3 -Pioneer and SDF-4 Liberator, four Shimakaze class battlecruisers, approximately 40+ Ikazuchi class carriers, several hundred Garfish class light cruisers and Severel thousands of VFA-6 Alpha and VFB-9 Beta fighters.In 2029, the Second Robotech War began when the Robotech Masters and their entire spacefleet arrive in Earth orbit to reclaim the protoculture matrix in the ruins of the SDF-1. The war lasts for over a year and although the Masters are defeated, the United Earth Government (UEG) is crippled and the United Earth Forces (included the elite Army of the Southern Cross) suffer massive losses. The REF was unable to send significant aid back to Earth due to its war with the Invid. When the Invid invaded Earth in 2031, marking the start of the Third Robotech War, the remaining military forces on Earth were easily defeated. The REF learns that Earth has fallen to the Invid when a group of survivors from the Southern Cross refugees who escaped from Earth after acquiring one of the few remaining operational spacecraft.A reconnaissance mission from SDF-3 fights through the alien war fleet and is rescued by the 15th Squad, only to bring word that no aid will be coming.
Princess Niriyuh Khan Armada
Added by Queen Armada

This was a major blunder by the Earth Forces.They crashed all of the veritechs that could have changed the war.All of the secret and advanced technology smashed into the Masters Ship.That technology could have changed the war.Instead of massively relying on REF the earth could have amassed their own fighter.They could have been ordered not to fight and to land on earth and unload their veritechs and update about the current REF.Building new technology.Cutting the Southern Cross and Earth from upgrading themselves.Invid had a fest battling the Hovertanks.Failure and blunder.Masters cut them off with ease and not to face new veritechs.

The Pioneer Mission Part One: Equipment and Mecha Of The Early Pioneer Mission

The Pioneer Mission and REF is subject to much mystery and debate, mainly for reasons that only the tail end of its technological era is ever seen, which leads many to believe that was what they possessed throughout their entire mission. This is fallacy for these two primary reasons:

1. If the Earth forces possessed Cyclones, Alpha and Beta fighters as far back as 2022-23, when the SDF-3 launched, why doesnt the Southern Cross have them in their inventory? The short answer is they would, and the long answer would be because its not cost effective to equip your primary fighting forces with two completely different types of weapon systems. Even if their missions were different, The ASC focusing on the defense of Earth, with the Pioneer Mission obviously focusing on the stars. Such diversity in weapons manufacture is also un-realistic so soon after the near total destruction of human life on Earth, not to mention the majority of the technological and manufacturing infrastructure of the planet.

2. The mecha and ships of the Southern Cross are more suited to fighting a someone like the Zentraedi, which is what the PM more than likely planned on facing during their mission, so they would have developed weapons based on the lessons learned during the First War. The Battloids have expentional speed and agility, the perfect counter for the Zentraedi pods, while the VHTs provide quick reaction capability mixed with decent firepower, making them THE best tool for facing the Zentraedis primarily ground based mecha force of battlepods, and to a lesser extent power armor, which is more than likely what the AJAX was intended to be a counter to. The ships of the ASC also follow a similar philosophy, being much smaller than the old RDF designs, but packing more firepower and agility, enabling them to evade Zentraedi capital ship weapons with relative ease.

The most likely 2014-2023 PM mecha compliment is a mix of Macross era Veritechs and destroids, with the Southern Cross era mecha coming into service around the late teens, as it would take time for designs to be have been developed with the lessons of the War, and perhaps even longer to get suitable production assets online. In terms of interstellar transport and combat assets, the most likely and econimicaly feasible solution, at least for the time, would be refit Zentraedi ships. Of course, considering Earths state and the sorry condition of the RFS *Factory Satellite* it wouldnt be within the Pioneer Missions capabilities to get anything larger than a Thuverl Salan *Destroyer* functional for such a mission. Considering the number of Tou Redirs *Scout Ship* in existence, and the high probability that many survived reasonably intact, the RFS could have been easily used in its limited capacity to refit a sizable contingent of said ships to the PM standard. What is that standard you might ask? First off the living accommodations would have to be altered to be able to support a mostly if not all micronized crew. There were more than likely ships of the fleet that were composed entirely of full sized Zentraedi, which would help explain their absence on Earth in later eras, as well as give them a way to continue their favored way of life. This would also give the Mission a sizable contingent of veterans.

The later ships launched as part of the Pioneer Mission were likely early bloc ASC designs, perhaps the first wave of the ships built; with modifications for long duration deep space travel, as the ASC would not have such a requirement. The Tokugawa that Major Carpenter commanded was more than likely an early bloc command ship launched as perhaps even as early as 2014, meaning it could have been intended to be one of the escorts of the SDF-2, or serve its own purpose as a command ship for PM flotillas. The latter seems to hold less water, as when the ship returns to Earth, it lacks any sort of other ships escorting it. No command ship would ever deploy alone, even one with substantial firepower, theyre simply too important logistically and strategically. Carpenters ship was more than likely a prototype for what was intended to be the main vessel of the Mission, a super long range exploratory vessel capable of self sustenance for long periods, perhaps even the entire fifteen years it was away from Earth.

http://robotechcampaigns.150m.com/tothestarsbook.html

Xenomorphs are priority in our real wars in outer space.Xenomorph is a parasite and alien creature.This parasite spreads and threatens endo and any body.It is a very dangerous creature.Macross will confront Xenomorphs planet and to conduct warfare on Xenomorphs.Many types of Xenomorphs even in the Galactic Empire. http://avp.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Species http://avp.wikia.com/wiki/Deacon http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Parasites To approach the Xenomorph planets and to start the destruction of them.Firing of missiles on them.Clean them out and destroy the planets they were on.This creature to make a protocal in Macross about horrifying race ending parasitic creatures.This is not invid.Ideas yes they lead to things.Find out the types of attack the Xenomorphs have.Their expansion and where they descend from.Not to get caught by the and trapped.They do something very serous which is to invasion the body and live inside attatching itself to person.Changing being and livng internally.Eat and grow in host.Horrible thing.Organics are contagion.Bio war.They are a bio war weapon of the http://avp.wikia.com/wiki/Last_Engineer These aliens must have war done on them as Galactic Empire,UFP and French Galactic Empire bred this creature as bio war.Must be eliminated properly.And learned about.Space.
https://monster.fandom.com/wiki/Uroboros_Laboratory A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.[1] The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.[2][3] The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, no locally detectable features appear to be observed.[4] In many ways a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light.[5][6] Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe.

Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace.[7] The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Black holes were long considered a mathematical curiosity; it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed they were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell in 1967 sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.

Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses (M☉) may form. There is general consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies.

Despite its invisible interior, the presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter and with electromagnetic radiation such as visible light. Matter that falls onto a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction, forming some of the brightest objects in the universe. If there are other stars orbiting a black hole, their orbits can be used to determine the black hole's mass and location. Such observations can be used to exclude possible alternatives such as neutron stars. In this way, astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems, and established that the radio source known as Sagittarius A*, at the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses.

On 11 February 2016, the LIGO collaboration announced the first direct detection of gravitational waves, which also represented the first observation of a black hole merger.[8] As of December 2018, eleven gravitational wave events have been observed that originated from ten merging black holes (along with one binary neutron star merger).[9][10]
Schwarzschild black hole
Simulation of gravitational lensing by a black hole, which distorts the image of a galaxy in the background
Gas cloud being ripped apart by black hole at the centre of the Milky Way (observations from 2006, 2010 and 2013 are shown in blue, green and red, respectively).[11]
Contents

1 History
1.1 General relativity
1.2 Golden age
1.3 Etymology
2 Properties and structure
2.1 Physical properties
2.2 Event horizon
2.3 Singularity
2.4 Photon sphere
2.5 Ergosphere
2.6 Innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO)
3 Formation and evolution
3.1 Gravitational collapse
3.1.1 Primordial black holes and the Big Bang
3.2 High-energy collisions
3.3 Growth
3.4 Evaporation
4 Observational evidence
4.1 Detection of gravitational waves from merging black holes
4.2 Proper motions of stars orbiting Sagittarius A*
4.3 Accretion of matter
4.3.1 X-ray binaries
4.3.1.1 Quiescence and advection-dominated accretion flow
4.3.1.2 Quasi-periodic oscillations
4.3.2 Galactic nuclei
4.4 Microlensing (proposed)
4.5 Alternatives
5 Open questions
5.1 Entropy and thermodynamics
5.2 Information loss paradox
5.3 The firewall paradox
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
9.1 Popular reading
9.2 University textbooks and monographs
9.3 Review papers
10 External links

History
Simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Note the gravitational lensing effect, which produces two enlarged but highly distorted views of the Cloud. Across the top, the Milky Way disk appears distorted into an arc.

The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was briefly proposed by astronomical pioneer and English clergyman John Michell in a letter published in November 1784. Michell's simplistic calculations assumed that such a body might have the same density as the Sun, and concluded that such a body would form when a star's diameter exceeds the Sun's by a factor of 500, and the surface escape velocity exceeds the usual speed of light. Michell correctly noted that such supermassive but non-radiating bodies might be detectable through their gravitational effects on nearby visible bodies.[12][7][13] Scholars of the time were initially excited by the proposal that giant but invisible stars might be hiding in plain view, but enthusiasm dampened when the wavelike nature of light became apparent in the early nineteenth century.[14] If light were a wave rather than a "corpuscle", it became unclear what, if any, influence gravity would have on escaping light waves.[7][13] Modern relativity discredits Michell's notion of a light ray shooting directly from the surface of a supermassive star, being slowed down by the star's gravity, stopping, and then free-falling back to the star's surface.[15]
General relativity

In 1915, Albert Einstein developed his theory of general relativity, having earlier shown that gravity does influence light's motion. Only a few months later, Karl Schwarzschild found a solution to the Einstein field equations, which describes the gravitational field of a point mass and a spherical mass.[16] A few months after Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, a student of Hendrik Lorentz, independently gave the same solution for the point mass and wrote more extensively about its properties.[17][18] This solution had a peculiar behaviour at what is now called the Schwarzschild radius, where it became singular, meaning that some of the terms in the Einstein equations became infinite. The nature of this surface was not quite understood at the time. In 1924, Arthur Eddington showed that the singularity disappeared after a change of coordinates (see Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates), although it took until 1933 for Georges Lemaître to realize that this meant the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius was a non-physical coordinate singularity.[19] Arthur Eddington did however comment on the possibility of a star with mass compressed to the Schwarzschild radius in a 1926 book, noting that Einstein's theory allows us to rule out overly large densities for visible stars like Betelgeuse because "a star of 250 million km radius could not possibly have so high a density as the sun. Firstly, the force of gravitation would be so great that light would be unable to escape from it, the rays falling back to the star like a stone to the earth. Secondly, the red shift of the spectral lines would be so great that the spectrum would be shifted out of existence. Thirdly, the mass would produce so much curvature of the space-time metric that space would close up around the star, leaving us outside (i.e., nowhere)."[20][21]

In 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar calculated, using special relativity, that a non-rotating body of electron-degenerate matter above a certain limiting mass (now called the Chandrasekhar limit at 1.4 M☉) has no stable solutions.[22] His arguments were opposed by many of his contemporaries like Eddington and Lev Landau, who argued that some yet unknown mechanism would stop the collapse.[23] They were partly correct: a white dwarf slightly more massive than the Chandrasekhar limit will collapse into a neutron star,[24] which is itself stable. But in 1939, Robert Oppenheimer and others predicted that neutron stars above another limit (the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit) would collapse further for the reasons presented by Chandrasekhar, and concluded that no law of physics was likely to intervene and stop at least some stars from collapsing to black holes.[25] Their original calculations, based on the Pauli exclusion principle, gave it as 0.7 M☉; subsequent consideration of strong force-mediated neutron-neutron repulsion raised the estimate to approximately 1.5 M☉ to 3.0 M☉.[26] Observations of the neutron star merger GW170817, which is thought to have generated a black hole shortly afterward, have refined the TOV limit estimate to ~2.17 M☉.[27][28][29][30][31]

Oppenheimer and his co-authors interpreted the singularity at the boundary of the Schwarzschild radius as indicating that this was the boundary of a bubble in which time stopped. This is a valid point of view for external observers, but not for infalling observers. Because of this property, the collapsed stars were called "frozen stars", because an outside observer would see the surface of the star frozen in time at the instant where its collapse takes it to the Schwarzschild radius.[32]
Golden age
See also: History of general relativity

In 1958, David Finkelstein identified the Schwarzschild surface as an event horizon, "a perfect unidirectional membrane: causal influences can cross it in only one direction".[33] This did not strictly contradict Oppenheimer's results, but extended them to include the point of view of infalling observers. Finkelstein's solution extended the Schwarzschild solution for the future of observers falling into a black hole. A complete extension had already been found by Martin Kruskal, who was urged to publish it.[34]

These results came at the beginning of the golden age of general relativity, which was marked by general relativity and black holes becoming mainstream subjects of research. This process was helped by the discovery of pulsars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell in 1967,[35][36] which, by 1969, were shown to be rapidly rotating neutron stars.[37] Until that time, neutron stars, like black holes, were regarded as just theoretical curiosities; but the discovery of pulsars showed their physical relevance and spurred a further interest in all types of compact objects that might be formed by gravitational collapse.[citation needed]

In this period more general black hole solutions were found. In 1963, Roy Kerr found the exact solution for a rotating black hole. Two years later, Ezra Newman found the axisymmetric solution for a black hole that is both rotating and electrically charged.[38] Through the work of Werner Israel,[39] Brandon Carter,[40][41] and David Robinson[42] the no-hair theorem emerged, stating that a stationary black hole solution is completely described by the three parameters of the Kerr–Newman metric: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.[43]

At first, it was suspected that the strange features of the black hole solutions were pathological artifacts from the symmetry conditions imposed, and that the singularities would not appear in generic situations. This view was held in particular by Vladimir Belinsky, Isaak Khalatnikov, and Evgeny Lifshitz, who tried to prove that no singularities appear in generic solutions. However, in the late 1960s Roger Penrose[44] and Stephen Hawking used global techniques to prove that singularities appear generically.[45]

Work by James Bardeen, Jacob Bekenstein, Carter, and Hawking in the early 1970s led to the formulation of black hole thermodynamics.[46] These laws describe the behaviour of a black hole in close analogy to the laws of thermodynamics by relating mass to energy, area to entropy, and surface gravity to temperature. The analogy was completed when Hawking, in 1974, showed that quantum field theory predicts that black holes should radiate like a black body with a temperature proportional to the surface gravity of the black hole.[47]
Etymology

John Michell used the term "dark star",[48] and in the early 20th century, physicists used the term "gravitationally collapsed object". Science writer Marcia Bartusiak traces the term "black hole" to physicist Robert H. Dicke, who in the early 1960s reportedly compared the phenomenon to the Black Hole of Calcutta, notorious as a prison where people entered but never left alive.[49]

The term "black hole" was used in print by Life magazine and Science News magazine in 1963,[49] and by science journalist Ann Ewing in her article "'Black Holes' in Space", dated 18 January 1964, which was a report on a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in Cleveland, Ohio.[50][51]

In December 1967, a student reportedly suggested the phrase "black hole" at a lecture by John Wheeler;[50] Wheeler adopted the term for its brevity and "advertising value", and it quickly caught on,[52] leading some to credit Wheeler with coining the phrase.[53]
Properties and structure
A simple illustration of a non-spinning black hole

The no-hair conjecture postulates that, once it achieves a stable condition after formation, a black hole has only three independent physical properties: mass, charge, and angular momentum; the black hole is otherwise featureless. If the conjecture is true, any two black holes that share the same values for these properties, or parameters, are indistinguishable from one another. The degree to which the conjecture is true for real black holes under the laws of modern physics, is currently an unsolved problem.[43]

These properties are special because they are visible from outside a black hole. For example, a charged black hole repels other like charges just like any other charged object. Similarly, the total mass inside a sphere containing a black hole can be found by using the gravitational analog of Gauss's law, the ADM mass, far away from the black hole.[54][clarification needed] Likewise, the angular momentum can be measured from far away using frame dragging by the gravitomagnetic field.[clarification needed]

When an object falls into a black hole, any information about the shape of the object or distribution of charge on it is evenly distributed along the horizon of the black hole, and is lost to outside observers. The behavior of the horizon in this situation is a dissipative system that is closely analogous to that of a conductive stretchy membrane with friction and electrical resistance—the membrane paradigm.[55] This is different from other field theories such as electromagnetism, which do not have any friction or resistivity at the microscopic level, because they are time-reversible. Because a black hole eventually achieves a stable state with only three parameters, there is no way to avoid losing information about the initial conditions: the gravitational and electric fields of a black hole give very little information about what went in. The information that is lost includes every quantity that cannot be measured far away from the black hole horizon, including approximately conserved quantum numbers such as the total baryon number and lepton number. This behavior is so puzzling that it has been called the black hole information loss paradox.[56][57]
Gravitational time dilation around a black hole
Physical properties

The simplest static black holes have mass but neither electric charge nor angular momentum. These black holes are often referred to as Schwarzschild black holes after Karl Schwarzschild who discovered this solution in 1916.[16] According to Birkhoff's theorem, it is the only vacuum solution that is spherically symmetric.[58] This means that there is no observable difference between the gravitational field of such a black hole and that of any other spherical object of the same mass. The popular notion of a black hole "sucking in everything" in its surroundings is therefore only correct near a black hole's horizon; far away, the external gravitational field is identical to that of any other body of the same mass.[59]

Solutions describing more general black holes also exist. Non-rotating charged black holes are described by the Reissner–Nordström metric, while the Kerr metric describes a non-charged rotating black hole. The most general stationary black hole solution known is the Kerr–Newman metric, which describes a black hole with both charge and angular momentum.[60]

While the mass of a black hole can take any positive value, the charge and angular momentum are constrained by the mass. In Planck units, the total electric charge Q and the total angular momentum J are expected to satisfy

Q 2 + ( J M ) 2 ≤ M 2 {\displaystyle Q^{2}+\left({\tfrac {J}{M}}\right)^{2}\leq M^{2}\,} Q^{2}+\left({\tfrac {J}{M}}\right)^{2}\leq M^{2}\,

for a black hole of mass M. Black holes with the minimum possible mass satisfying this inequality are called extremal. Solutions of Einstein's equations that violate this inequality exist, but they do not possess an event horizon. These solutions have so-called naked singularities that can be observed from the outside, and hence are deemed unphysical. The cosmic censorship hypothesis rules out the formation of such singularities, when they are created through the gravitational collapse of realistic matter.[2] This is supported by numerical simulations.[61]

Due to the relatively large strength of the electromagnetic force, black holes forming from the collapse of stars are expected to retain the nearly neutral charge of the star. Rotation, however, is expected to be a universal feature of compact astrophysical objects. The black-hole candidate binary X-ray source GRS 1915+105[62] appears to have an angular momentum near the maximum allowed value. That uncharged limit is[63]

J ≤ G M 2 c , {\displaystyle J\leq {\frac {GM^{2}}{c}},} {\displaystyle J\leq {\frac {GM^{2}}{c}},}

allowing definition of a dimensionless spin parameter such that[63]

0 ≤ c J G M 2 ≤ 1. {\displaystyle 0\leq {\frac {cJ}{GM^{2}}}\leq 1.} {\displaystyle 0\leq {\frac {cJ}{GM^{2}}}\leq 1.}[63][Note 1]

Black hole classifications Class Approx.
mass Approx.
size
Supermassive black hole 105–1010 MSun 0.001–400 AU
Intermediate-mass black hole 103 MSun 103 km ≈ REarth
Stellar black hole 10 MSun 30 km
Micro black hole up to MMoon up to 0.1 mm

Black holes are commonly classified according to their mass, independent of angular momentum, J. The size of a black hole, as determined by the radius of the event horizon, or Schwarzschild radius, is roughly proportional to the mass, M, through

r s = 2 G M c 2 ≈ 2.95 M M S u n k m , {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {s} }={\frac {2GM}{c^{2}}}\approx 2.95\,{\frac {M}{M_{\mathrm {Sun} }}}~\mathrm {km,} } {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {s} }={\frac {2GM}{c^{2}}}\approx 2.95\,{\frac {M}{M_{\mathrm {Sun} }}}~\mathrm {km,} }

where rs is the Schwarzschild radius and MSun is the mass of the Sun.[65] For a black hole with nonzero spin and/or electric charge, the radius is smaller,[Note 2] until an extremal black hole could have an event horizon close to[66]

r + = G M c 2 . {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {+} }={\frac {GM}{c^{2}}}.} {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {+} }={\frac {GM}{c^{2}}}.}

Event horizon
Main article: Event horizon
Far away from the black hole, a particle can move in any direction, as illustrated by the set of arrows. It is only restricted by the speed of light.
Closer to the black hole, spacetime starts to deform. There are more paths going towards the black hole than paths moving away.[Note 3]
Inside of the event horizon, all paths bring the particle closer to the center of the black hole. It is no longer possible for the particle to escape.

The defining feature of a black hole is the appearance of an event horizon—a boundary in spacetime through which matter and light can only pass inward towards the mass of the black hole. Nothing, not even light, can escape from inside the event horizon. The event horizon is referred to as such because if an event occurs within the boundary, information from that event cannot reach an outside observer, making it impossible to determine if such an event occurred.[68]

As predicted by general relativity, the presence of a mass deforms spacetime in such a way that the paths taken by particles bend towards the mass.[69] At the event horizon of a black hole, this deformation becomes so strong that there are no paths that lead away from the black hole.[70]

To a distant observer, clocks near a black hole would appear to tick more slowly than those further away from the black hole.[71] Due to this effect, known as gravitational time dilation, an object falling into a black hole appears to slow as it approaches the event horizon, taking an infinite time to reach it.[72] At the same time, all processes on this object slow down, from the view point of a fixed outside observer, causing any light emitted by the object to appear redder and dimmer, an effect known as gravitational redshift.[73] Eventually, the falling object fades away until it can no longer be seen. Typically this process happens very rapidly with an object disappearing from view within less than a second.[74]

On the other hand, indestructible observers falling into a black hole do not notice any of these effects as they cross the event horizon. According to their own clocks, which appear to them to tick normally, they cross the event horizon after a finite time without noting any singular behaviour; in classical general relativity, it is impossible to determine the location of the event horizon from local observations, due to Einstein's equivalence principle.[75][76]

The shape of the event horizon of a black hole is always approximately spherical.[Note 4][79] For non-rotating (static) black holes the geometry of the event horizon is precisely spherical, while for rotating black holes the event horizon is oblate.[80]
Singularity
Main article: Gravitational singularity

At the center of a black hole, as described by general relativity, lies a gravitational singularity, a region where the spacetime curvature becomes infinite.[81] For a non-rotating black hole, this region takes the shape of a single point and for a rotating black hole, it is smeared out to form a ring singularity that lies in the plane of rotation.[82] In both cases, the singular region has zero volume. It can also be shown that the singular region contains all the mass of the black hole solution.[83] The singular region can thus be thought of as having infinite density.[84]

Observers falling into a Schwarzschild black hole (i.e., non-rotating and not charged) cannot avoid being carried into the singularity, once they cross the event horizon. They can prolong the experience by accelerating away to slow their descent, but only up to a limit.[85] When they reach the singularity, they are crushed to infinite density and their mass is added to the total of the black hole. Before that happens, they will have been torn apart by the growing tidal forces in a process sometimes referred to as spaghettification or the "noodle effect".[86]

In the case of a charged (Reissner–Nordström) or rotating (Kerr) black hole, it is possible to avoid the singularity. Extending these solutions as far as possible reveals the hypothetical possibility of exiting the black hole into a different spacetime with the black hole acting as a wormhole.[87] The possibility of traveling to another universe is, however, only theoretical since any perturbation would destroy this possibility.[88] It also appears to be possible to follow closed timelike curves (returning to one's own past) around the Kerr singularity, which leads to problems with causality like the grandfather paradox.[89] It is expected that none of these peculiar effects would survive in a proper quantum treatment of rotating and charged black holes.[90]

The appearance of singularities in general relativity is commonly perceived as signaling the breakdown of the theory.[91] This breakdown, however, is expected; it occurs in a situation where quantum effects should describe these actions, due to the extremely high density and therefore particle interactions. To date, it has not been possible to combine quantum and gravitational effects into a single theory, although there exist attempts to formulate such a theory of quantum gravity. It is generally expected that such a theory will not feature any singularities.[92][93]
Photon sphere
Main article: Photon sphere

The photon sphere is a spherical boundary of zero thickness in which photons that move on tangents to that sphere would be trapped in a circular orbit about the black hole. For non-rotating black holes, the photon sphere has a radius 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius. Their orbits would be dynamically unstable, hence any small perturbation, such as a particle of infalling matter, would cause an instability that would grow over time, either setting the photon on an outward trajectory causing it to escape the black hole, or on an inward spiral where it would eventually cross the event horizon.[94]

While light can still escape from the photon sphere, any light that crosses the photon sphere on an inbound trajectory will be captured by the black hole. Hence any light that reaches an outside observer from the photon sphere must have been emitted by objects between the photon sphere and the event horizon.[94]
Ergosphere
Main article: Ergosphere
The ergosphere is a pumpkin-shaped region outside of the event horizon, where objects cannot remain stationary.[95]

Rotating black holes are surrounded by a region of spacetime in which it is impossible to stand still, called the ergosphere. This is the result of a process known as frame-dragging; general relativity predicts that any rotating mass will tend to slightly "drag" along the spacetime immediately surrounding it. Any object near the rotating mass will tend to start moving in the direction of rotation. For a rotating black hole, this effect is so strong near the event horizon that an object would have to move faster than the speed of light in the opposite direction to just stand still.[96]

The ergosphere of a black hole is a volume whose inner boundary is the black hole's oblate spheroid event horizon and a pumpkin-shaped outer boundary, which coincides with the event horizon at the poles but noticeably wider around the equator. The outer boundary is sometimes called the ergosurface.[95]

Objects and radiation can escape normally from the ergosphere. Through the Penrose process, objects can emerge from the ergosphere with more energy than they entered. This energy is taken from the rotational energy of the black hole causing the latter to slow.[97]
Innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO)
Main article: Innermost stable circular orbit

In Newtonian gravity, test particles can stably orbit at arbitrary distances from a central object. In general relativity, however, there exists an innermost stable circular orbit (often called the ISCO), inside of which, any infinitesimal perturbations to a circular orbit will lead to inspiral into the black hole.[98] The location of the ISCO depends on the spin of the black hole, in the case of a Schwarzschild black hole (spin zero) is:

r i s c o = 3 r s = 6 G M c 2 , {\displaystyle r_{isco}=3\,r_{s}={\frac {6\,GM}{c^{2}}},} {\displaystyle r_{isco}=3\,r_{s}={\frac {6\,GM}{c^{2}}},}

and decreases with increasing black hole spin for particles orbiting in the same direction as the spin.[99]
Formation and evolution

Given the bizarre character of black holes, it was long questioned whether such objects could actually exist in nature or whether they were merely pathological solutions to Einstein's equations. Einstein himself wrongly thought that black holes would not form, because he held that the angular momentum of collapsing particles would stabilize their motion at some radius.[100] This led the general relativity community to dismiss all results to the contrary for many years. However, a minority of relativists continued to contend that black holes were physical objects,[101] and by the end of the 1960s, they had persuaded the majority of researchers in the field that there is no obstacle to the formation of an event horizon.[citation needed]
File:BBH gravitational lensing of gw150914.webmPlay media
Two Black Holes Colliding

Penrose proved that once an event horizon forms, general relativity without quantum mechanics requires that a singularity will form within.[44] Shortly afterwards, Hawking showed that many cosmological solutions that describe the Big Bang have singularities without scalar fields or other exotic matter (see "Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems").[clarification needed] The Kerr solution, the no-hair theorem, and the laws of black hole thermodynamics showed that the physical properties of black holes were simple and comprehensible, making them respectable subjects for research.[102] Conventional black holes are formed by gravitational collapse of heavy objects such as stars, but they can also in theory be formed by other processes.[103][104]
Gravitational collapse
Main article: Gravitational collapse

Gravitational collapse occurs when an object's internal pressure is insufficient to resist the object's own gravity. For stars this usually occurs either because a star has too little "fuel" left to maintain its temperature through stellar nucleosynthesis, or because a star that would have been stable receives extra matter in a way that does not raise its core temperature. In either case the star's temperature is no longer high enough to prevent it from collapsing under its own weight.[105] The collapse may be stopped by the degeneracy pressure of the star's constituents, allowing the condensation of matter into an exotic denser state. The result is one of the various types of compact star. Which type forms depends on the mass of the remnant of the original star left after the outer layers have been blown away. Such explosions and pulsations lead to planetary nebula.[106] This mass can be substantially less than the original star. Remnants exceeding 5 M☉ are produced by stars that were over 20 M☉ before the collapse.[105]

If the mass of the remnant exceeds about 3–4 M☉ (the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit[25]), either because the original star was very heavy or because the remnant collected additional mass through accretion of matter, even the degeneracy pressure of neutrons is insufficient to stop the collapse. No known mechanism (except possibly quark degeneracy pressure, see quark star) is powerful enough to stop the implosion and the object will inevitably collapse to form a black hole.[105]
Artist's impression of supermassive black hole seed.[107]

The gravitational collapse of heavy stars is assumed to be responsible for the formation of stellar mass black holes. Star formation in the early universe may have resulted in very massive stars, which upon their collapse would have produced black holes of up to 103 M☉. These black holes could be the seeds of the supermassive black holes found in the centers of most galaxies.[108] It has further been suggested that supermassive black holes with typical masses of ~105 M☉ could have formed from the direct collapse of gas clouds in the young universe.[103] Some candidates for such objects have been found in observations of the young universe.[103]

While most of the energy released during gravitational collapse is emitted very quickly, an outside observer does not actually see the end of this process. Even though the collapse takes a finite amount of time from the reference frame of infalling matter, a distant observer would see the infalling material slow and halt just above the event horizon, due to gravitational time dilation. Light from the collapsing material takes longer and longer to reach the observer, with the light emitted just before the event horizon forms delayed an infinite amount of time. Thus the external observer never sees the formation of the event horizon; instead, the collapsing material seems to become dimmer and increasingly red-shifted, eventually fading away.[109]
Primordial black holes and the Big Bang

Gravitational collapse requires great density. In the current epoch of the universe these high densities are only found in stars, but in the early universe shortly after the Big Bang densities were much greater, possibly allowing for the creation of black holes. High density alone is not enough to allow black hole formation since a uniform mass distribution will not allow the mass to bunch up. In order for primordial black holes to have formed in such a dense medium, there must have been initial density perturbations that could then grow under their own gravity. Different models for the early universe vary widely in their predictions of the scale of these fluctuations. Various models predict the creation of primordial black holes ranging in size from a Planck mass to hundreds of thousands of solar masses.[104]

Despite the early universe being extremely dense—far denser than is usually required to form a black hole—it did not re-collapse into a black hole during the Big Bang. Models for gravitational collapse of objects of relatively constant size, such as stars, do not necessarily apply in the same way to rapidly expanding space such as the Big Bang.[110]
High-energy collisions
A simulated event in the CMS detector, a collision in which a micro black hole may be created.

Gravitational collapse is not the only process that could create black holes. In principle, black holes could be formed in high-energy collisions that achieve sufficient density. As of 2002, no such events have been detected, either directly or indirectly as a deficiency of the mass balance in particle accelerator experiments.[111] This suggests that there must be a lower limit for the mass of black holes. Theoretically, this boundary is expected to lie around the Planck mass (mP=√ħ c/G ≈ 1.2×1019 GeV/c2 ≈ 2.2×10−8 kg), where quantum effects are expected to invalidate the predictions of general relativity.[112] This would put the creation of black holes firmly out of reach of any high-energy process occurring on or near the Earth. However, certain developments in quantum gravity suggest that the Planck mass could be much lower: some braneworld scenarios for example put the boundary as low as 1 TeV/c2.[113] This would make it conceivable for micro black holes to be created in the high-energy collisions that occur when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, or possibly in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These theories are very speculative, and the creation of black holes in these processes is deemed unlikely by many specialists.[114] Even if micro black holes could be formed, it is expected that they would evaporate in about 10−25 seconds, posing no threat to the Earth.[115]
Growth

Once a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing additional matter. Any black hole will continually absorb gas and interstellar dust from its surroundings. This is the primary process through which supermassive black holes seem to have grown.[108] A similar process has been suggested for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes found in globular clusters.[116] Black holes can also merge with other objects such as stars or even other black holes. This is thought to have been important, especially in the early growth of supermassive black holes, which could have formed from the aggregation of many smaller objects.[108] The process has also been proposed as the origin of some intermediate-mass black holes.[117][118]
Evaporation
Main article: Hawking radiation

In 1974, Hawking predicted that black holes are not entirely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation at a temperature ℏ c3/(8 π G M kB);[47] this effect has become known as Hawking radiation. By applying quantum field theory to a static black hole background, he determined that a black hole should emit particles that display a perfect black body spectrum. Since Hawking's publication, many others have verified the result through various approaches.[119] If Hawking's theory of black hole radiation is correct, then black holes are expected to shrink and evaporate over time as they lose mass by the emission of photons and other particles.[47] The temperature of this thermal spectrum (Hawking temperature) is proportional to the surface gravity of the black hole, which, for a Schwarzschild black hole, is inversely proportional to the mass. Hence, large black holes emit less radiation than small black holes.[120]

A stellar black hole of 1 M☉ has a Hawking temperature of 62 nanokelvins.[121] This is far less than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Stellar-mass or larger black holes receive more mass from the cosmic microwave background than they emit through Hawking radiation and thus will grow instead of shrink.[122] To have a Hawking temperature larger than 2.7 K (and be able to evaporate), a black hole would need a mass less than the Moon. Such a black hole would have a diameter of less than a tenth of a millimeter.[123]

If a black hole is very small, the radiation effects are expected to become very strong. Even a black hole that is heavy compared to a human would evaporate in an instant. A black hole with the mass of a car would have a diameter of about 10−24 m and take a nanosecond to evaporate, during which time it would briefly have a luminosity of more than 200 times that of the Sun. Lower-mass black holes are expected to evaporate even faster; for example, a black hole of mass 1 TeV/c2 would take less than 10−88 seconds to evaporate completely. For such a small black hole, quantum gravitation effects are expected to play an important role and could hypothetically make such a small black hole stable, although current developments in quantum gravity do not indicate so.[124][125]

The Hawking radiation for an astrophysical black hole is predicted to be very weak and would thus be exceedingly difficult to detect from Earth. A possible exception, however, is the burst of gamma rays emitted in the last stage of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Searches for such flashes have proven unsuccessful and provide stringent limits on the possibility of existence of low mass primordial black holes.[126] NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched in 2008 will continue the search for these flashes.[127]

If black holes evaporate via Hawking radiation, a solar mass black hole will evaporate (beginning once the temperature of the cosmic microwave background drops below that of the black hole) over 1064 years.[128] A supermassive black hole with a mass of 1011 (100 billion) M☉ will evaporate in around 2×10100 years.[129] Some monster black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014 M☉ during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years.[128]
Observational evidence
Predicted appearance of non-rotating black hole with toroidal ring of ionised matter, such as has been proposed[130] as a model for Sagittarius A*. The asymmetry is due to the Doppler effect resulting from the enormous orbital speed needed for centrifugal balance of the very strong gravitational attraction of the hole.

By their very nature, black holes do not directly emit any electromagnetic radiation other than the hypothetical Hawking radiation, so astrophysicists searching for black holes must generally rely on indirect observations. For example, a black hole's existence can sometimes be inferred by observing its gravitational interactions with its surroundings.[131]

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), however, run by MIT's Haystack Observatory, is an attempt to directly observe the immediate environment of the event horizon of Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, and to produce a silhouetted image of it. The first such image may appear as early as 2018.[132] In 2015, the EHT managed to detect magnetic fields just outside the event horizon of Sagittarius A*, and even discern some of their properties. The existence of magnetic fields had been predicted by theoretical studies of black holes.[133][134]
Detection of gravitational waves from merging black holes

On 14 September 2015 the LIGO gravitational wave observatory made the first-ever successful direct observation of gravitational waves.[8][135] The signal was consistent with theoretical predictions for the gravitational waves produced by the merger of two black holes: one with about 36 solar masses, and the other around 29 solar masses.[8][136] This observation provides the most concrete evidence for the existence of black holes to date. For instance, the gravitational wave signal suggests that the separation of the two objects prior to the merger was just 350 km (or roughly 4 times the Schwarzschild radius corresponding to the inferred masses). The objects must therefore have been extremely compact, leaving black holes as the most plausible interpretation.[8]

More importantly, the signal observed by LIGO also included the start of the post-merger ringdown, the signal produced as the newly formed compact object settles down to a stationary state. Arguably, the ringdown is the most direct way of observing a black hole.[137] From the LIGO signal it is possible to extract the frequency and damping time of the dominant mode of the ringdown. From these it is possible to infer the mass and angular momentum of the final object, which match independent predictions from numerical simulations of the merger.[138] The frequency and decay time of the dominant mode are determined by the geometry of the photon sphere. Hence, observation of this mode confirms the presence of a photon sphere, however it cannot exclude possible exotic alternatives to black holes that are compact enough to have a photon sphere.[137]

The observation also provides the first observational evidence for the existence of stellar-mass black hole binaries. Furthermore, it is the first observational evidence of stellar-mass black holes weighing 25 solar masses or more.[139]

On 15 June 2016, a second detection of a gravitational wave event from colliding black holes was announced,[140] and other gravitational wave events have since been observed.[10]
Proper motions of stars orbiting Sagittarius A*

The proper motions of stars near the center of our own Milky Way provide strong observational evidence that these stars are orbiting a supermassive black hole.[141] Since 1995, astronomers have tracked the motions of 90 stars orbiting an invisible object coincident with the radio source Sagittarius A*. By fitting their motions to Keplerian orbits, the astronomers were able to infer, in 1998, that a 2.6 million M☉ object must be contained in a volume with a radius of 0.02 light-years to cause the motions of those stars.[142] Since then, one of the stars—called S2—has completed a full orbit. From the orbital data, astronomers were able to refine the calculations of the mass to 4.3 million M☉ and a radius of less than 0.002 light years for the object causing the orbital motion of those stars.[141] The upper limit on the object's size is still too large to test whether it is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius; nevertheless, these observations strongly suggest that the central object is a supermassive black hole as there are no other plausible scenarios for confining so much invisible mass into such a small volume.[142] Additionally, there is some observational evidence that this object might possess an event horizon, a feature unique to black holes.[143]
Accretion of matter
See also: Accretion disc
Black hole with corona, X-ray source (artist's concept).[144]

Due to conservation of angular momentum,[145] gas falling into the gravitational well created by a massive object will typically form a disc-like structure around the object. Artists' impressions such as the accompanying representation of a black hole with corona commonly depict the black hole as if it were a flat-space body hiding the part of the disc just behind it, but in reality gravitational lensing would greatly distort the image of the accretion disk.[146]
Predicted view from outside the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole lit by a thin accretion disc

Within such a disc, friction would cause angular momentum to be transported outward, allowing matter to fall further inward, thus releasing potential energy and increasing the temperature of the gas.[147]
Blurring of X-rays near black hole (NuSTAR; 12 August 2014).[144]

When the accreting object is a neutron star or a black hole, the gas in the inner accretion disc orbits at very high speeds because of its proximity to the compact object. The resulting friction is so significant that it heats the inner disc to temperatures at which it emits vast amounts of electromagnetic radiation (mainly X-rays). These bright X-ray sources may be detected by telescopes. This process of accretion is one of the most efficient energy-producing processes known; up to 40% of the rest mass of the accreted material can be emitted as radiation.[147] (In nuclear fusion only about 0.7% of the rest mass will be emitted as energy.) In many cases, accretion discs are accompanied by relativistic jets that are emitted along the poles, which carry away much of the energy. The mechanism for the creation of these jets is currently not well understood, in part due to insufficient data.[148]

As such, many of the universe's more energetic phenomena have been attributed to the accretion of matter on black holes. In particular, active galactic nuclei and quasars are believed to be the accretion discs of supermassive black holes.[149] Similarly, X-ray binaries are generally accepted to be binary star systems in which one of the two stars is a compact object accreting matter from its companion.[149] It has also been suggested that some ultraluminous X-ray sources may be the accretion disks of intermediate-mass black holes.[150]

In November 2011 the first direct observation of a quasar accretion disk around a supermassive black hole was reported.[151][152]
X-ray binaries
See also: X-ray binary
File:A star is consumed by a black hole.ogvPlay media
A computer simulation of a star being consumed by a black hole. The blue dot indicates the location of the black hole.
File:RXTE Detects Heartbeat Of Smallest Black Hole Candidate.ogvPlay media
This animation compares the X-ray 'heartbeats' of GRS 1915 and IGR J17091, two black holes that ingest gas from companion stars.
A Chandra X-Ray Observatory image of Cygnus X-1, which was the first strong black hole candidate discovered

X-ray binaries are binary star systems that emit a majority of their radiation in the X-ray part of the spectrum. These X-ray emissions are generally thought to result when one of the stars (compact object) accretes matter from another (regular) star. The presence of an ordinary star in such a system provides an opportunity for studying the central object and to determine if it might be a black hole.[149]

If such a system emits signals that can be directly traced back to the compact object, it cannot be a black hole. The absence of such a signal does, however, not exclude the possibility that the compact object is a neutron star. By studying the companion star it is often possible to obtain the orbital parameters of the system and to obtain an estimate for the mass of the compact object. If this is much larger than the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit (that is, the maximum mass a neutron star can have before it collapses) then the object cannot be a neutron star and is generally expected to be a black hole.[149]

The first strong candidate for a black hole, Cygnus X-1, was discovered in this way by Charles Thomas Bolton,[153] Louise Webster and Paul Murdin[154] in 1972.[155][156] Some doubt, however, remained due to the uncertainties that result from the companion star being much heavier than the candidate black hole. Currently, better candidates for black holes are found in a class of X-ray binaries called soft X-ray transients. In this class of system, the companion star is of relatively low mass allowing for more accurate estimates of the black hole mass. Moreover, these systems are actively emit X-rays for only several months once every 10–50 years. During the period of low X-ray emission (called quiescence), the accretion disc is extremely faint allowing detailed observation of the companion star during this period. One of the best such candidates is V404 Cygni.[149]
Quiescence and advection-dominated accretion flow

The faintness of the accretion disc of an X-ray binary during quiescence is suspected to be caused by the flow of mass entering a mode called an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). In this mode, almost all the energy generated by friction in the disc is swept along with the flow instead of radiated away. If this model is correct, then it forms strong qualitative evidence for the presence of an event horizon,[157] since if the object at the center of the disc had a solid surface, it would emit large amounts of radiation as the highly energetic gas hits the surface,[clarification needed] an effect that is observed for neutron stars in a similar state.[147]
Quasi-periodic oscillations
Main article: Quasi-periodic oscillations

The X-ray emissions from accretion disks sometimes flicker at certain frequencies. These signals are called quasi-periodic oscillations and are thought to be caused by material moving along the inner edge of the accretion disk (the innermost stable circular orbit). As such their frequency is linked to the mass of the compact object. They can thus be used as an alternative way to determine the mass of candidate black holes.[158]
Galactic nuclei
See also: Active galactic nucleus
Magnetic waves, called Alfvén S-waves, flow from the base of black hole jets.

Astronomers use the term "active galaxy" to describe galaxies with unusual characteristics, such as unusual spectral line emission and very strong radio emission. Theoretical and observational studies have shown that the activity in these active galactic nuclei (AGN) may be explained by the presence of supermassive black holes, which can be millions of times more massive than stellar ones. The models of these AGN consist of a central black hole that may be millions or billions of times more massive than the Sun; a disk of gas and dust called an accretion disk; and two jets perpendicular to the accretion disk.[159][160]
Detection of unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy on 5 January 2015.[161]

Although supermassive black holes are expected to be found in most AGN, only some galaxies' nuclei have been more carefully studied in attempts to both identify and measure the actual masses of the central supermassive black hole candidates. Some of the most notable galaxies with supermassive black hole candidates include the Andromeda Galaxy, M32, M87, NGC 3115, NGC 3377, NGC 4258, NGC 4889, NGC 1277, OJ 287, APM 08279+5255 and the Sombrero Galaxy.[162]

It is now widely accepted that the center of nearly every galaxy, not just active ones, contains a supermassive black hole.[163] The close observational correlation between the mass of this hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's bulge, known as the M-sigma relation, strongly suggests a connection between the formation of the black hole and the galaxy itself.[164]
Simulation of gas cloud after close approach to the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.[165]
Microlensing (proposed)

Another way that the black hole nature of an object may be tested in the future is through observation of effects caused by a strong gravitational field in their vicinity. One such effect is gravitational lensing: The deformation of spacetime around a massive object causes light rays to be deflected much as light passing through an optic lens. Observations have been made of weak gravitational lensing, in which light rays are deflected by only a few arcseconds. However, it has never been directly observed for a black hole.[166] One possibility for observing gravitational lensing by a black hole would be to observe stars in orbit around the black hole. There are several candidates for such an observation in orbit around Sagittarius A*.[166]
Alternatives
See also: Exotic star

The evidence for stellar black holes strongly relies on the existence of an upper limit for the mass of a neutron star. The size of this limit heavily depends on the assumptions made about the properties of dense matter. New exotic phases of matter could push up this bound.[149] A phase of free quarks at high density might allow the existence of dense quark stars,[167] and some supersymmetric models predict the existence of Q stars.[168] Some extensions of the standard model posit the existence of preons as fundamental building blocks of quarks and leptons, which could hypothetically form preon stars.[169] These hypothetical models could potentially explain a number of observations of stellar black hole candidates. However, it can be shown from arguments in general relativity that any such object will have a maximum mass.[149]

Since the average density of a black hole inside its Schwarzschild radius is inversely proportional to the square of its mass, supermassive black holes are much less dense than stellar black holes (the average density of a 108 M☉ black hole is comparable to that of water).[149] Consequently, the physics of matter forming a supermassive black hole is much better understood and the possible alternative explanations for supermassive black hole observations are much more mundane. For example, a supermassive black hole could be modelled by a large cluster of very dark objects. However, such alternatives are typically not stable enough to explain the supermassive black hole candidates.[149]

The evidence for the existence of stellar and supermassive black holes implies that in order for black holes to not form, general relativity must fail as a theory of gravity, perhaps due to the onset of quantum mechanical corrections. A much anticipated feature of a theory of quantum gravity is that it will not feature singularities or event horizons and thus black holes would not be real artifacts.[170] For example, in the fuzzball model based on string theory, the individual states of a black hole solution do not generally have an event horizon or singularity, but for a classical/semi-classical observer the statistical average of such states appears just as an ordinary black hole as deduced from general relativity.[171]

A few theoretical objects have been conjectured to match observations of astronomical black hole candidates identically or near-identically, but which function via a different mechanism. These include the gravastar, the black star (semiclassical gravity),[172] and the dark-energy star.[173]
Open questions
Entropy and thermodynamics
Further information: Black hole thermodynamics
S = 1/4 c3k/Għ A
The formula for the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy (S) of a black hole, which depends on the area of the black hole (A). The constants are the speed of light (c), the Boltzmann constant (k), Newton's constant (G), and the reduced Planck constant (ħ). In Planck units, this reduces to S = A/4.

In 1971, Hawking showed under general conditions[Note 5] that the total area of the event horizons of any collection of classical black holes can never decrease, even if they collide and merge.[174] This result, now known as the second law of black hole mechanics, is remarkably similar to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the total entropy of a system can never decrease. As with classical objects at absolute zero temperature, it was assumed that black holes had zero entropy. If this were the case, the second law of thermodynamics would be violated by entropy-laden matter entering a black hole, resulting in a decrease of the total entropy of the universe. Therefore, Bekenstein proposed that a black hole should have an entropy, and that it should be proportional to its horizon area.[175]

The link with the laws of thermodynamics was further strengthened by Hawking's discovery that quantum field theory predicts that a black hole radiates blackbody radiation at a constant temperature. This seemingly causes a violation of the second law of black hole mechanics, since the radiation will carry away energy from the black hole causing it to shrink. The radiation, however also carries away entropy, and it can be proven under general assumptions that the sum of the entropy of the matter surrounding a black hole and one quarter of the area of the horizon as measured in Planck units is in fact always increasing. This allows the formulation of the first law of black hole mechanics as an analogue of the first law of thermodynamics, with the mass acting as energy, the surface gravity as temperature and the area as entropy.[175]

One puzzling feature is that the entropy of a black hole scales with its area rather than with its volume, since entropy is normally an extensive quantity that scales linearly with the volume of the system. This odd property led Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind to propose the holographic principle, which suggests that anything that happens in a volume of spacetime can be described by data on the boundary of that volume.[176]

Although general relativity can be used to perform a semi-classical calculation of black hole entropy, this situation is theoretically unsatisfying. In statistical mechanics, entropy is understood as counting the number of microscopic configurations of a system that have the same macroscopic qualities (such as mass, charge, pressure, etc.). Without a satisfactory theory of quantum gravity, one cannot perform such a computation for black holes. Some progress has been made in various approaches to quantum gravity. In 1995, Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa showed that counting the microstates of a specific supersymmetric black hole in string theory reproduced the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.[177] Since then, similar results have been reported for different black holes both in string theory and in other approaches to quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity.[178]
Information loss paradox
Main article: Black hole information paradox
Question dropshade.png Unsolved problem in physics:
Is physical information lost in black holes?
(more unsolved problems in physics)

Because a black hole has only a few internal parameters, most of the information about the matter that went into forming the black hole is lost. Regardless of the type of matter which goes into a black hole, it appears that only information concerning the total mass, charge, and angular momentum are conserved. As long as black holes were thought to persist forever this information loss is not that problematic, as the information can be thought of as existing inside the black hole, inaccessible from the outside, but represented on the event horizon in accordance with the holograpic principle. However, black holes slowly evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. This radiation does not appear to carry any additional information about the matter that formed the black hole, meaning that this information appears to be gone forever.[179]

The question whether information is truly lost in black holes (the black hole information paradox) has divided the theoretical physics community (see Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet). In quantum mechanics, loss of information corresponds to the violation of vital property called unitarity, which has to do with the conservation of probability. It has been argued that loss of unitarity would also imply violation of conservation of energy.[180] Over recent years evidence has been building that indeed information and unitarity are preserved in a full quantum gravitational treatment of the problem.[181]
The firewall paradox
Main article: Firewall (physics)

According to quantum field theory in curved spacetime, a single emission of Hawking radiation involves two mutually entangled particles. The outgoing particle escapes and is emitted as a quantum of Hawking radiation; the infalling particle is swallowed by the black hole. Assume a black hole formed a finite time in the past and will fully evaporate away in some finite time in the future. Then, it will only emit a finite amount of information encoded within its Hawking radiation. Assume that at time t {\displaystyle t} t, more than half of the information had already been emitted. According to widely accepted research by physicists like Don Page[182][183] and Leonard Susskind, an outgoing particle emitted at time t {\displaystyle t} t must be entangled with all the Hawking radiation the black hole has previously emitted. This creates a paradox: a principle called "monogamy of entanglement" requires that, like any quantum system, the outgoing particle cannot be fully entangled with two independent systems at the same time; yet here the outgoing particle appears to be entangled with both the infalling particle and, independently, with past Hawking radiation.[184]

In order to resolve the paradox, physicists may eventually be forced to give up one of three time-tested theories: Einstein's equivalence principle, unitarity, or existing quantum field theory. One possible solution, which violates the equivalence principle, is that a "firewall" destroys incoming particles at the event horizon.[185] A 2016 analysis of LIGO data shows tentative signs of echoes caused by a fuzzy event horizon; such echoes may be possible in firewall or fuzzball theories but should not occur in classical general relativity. Over the next two years, additional LIGO data should establish whether the echoes were just random noise, or whether they are instead evidence of a violation of classical general relativity.[186]
See also

Black brane
Black hole complementarity
Black Hole Initiative
Black holes in fiction
Black hole starship
Black string
BTZ black hole
General relativity
Kugelblitz (astrophysics)
List of black holes
List of nearest black holes
Outline of black holes
Sonic black hole, also Dumb hole
Stellar black hole
Supermassive black holes
Susskind-Hawking battle
Timeline of black hole physics
White hole
Wormhole

Notes

The value of cJ/GM2 can exceed 1 for objects other than black holes. The largest value known for a neutron star is ≤ 0.4, and commonly used equations of state would limit that value to < 0.7.[64]
The (outer) event horizon radius scales as: M + M 2 − ( J / M ) 2 − Q 2 . {\displaystyle M+{\sqrt {M^{2}-{(J/M)}^{2}-Q^{2}}}.} {\displaystyle M+{\sqrt {M^{2}-{(J/M)}^{2}-Q^{2}}}.}
The set of possible paths, or more accurately the future light cone containing all possible world lines (in this diagram the light cone is represented by the V-shaped region bounded by arrows representing light ray world lines), is tilted in this way in Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates (the diagram is a "cartoon" version of an Eddington–Finkelstein coordinate diagram), but in other coordinates the light cones are not tilted in this way, for example in Schwarzschild coordinates they simply narrow without tilting as one approaches the event horizon, and in Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates the light cones do not change shape or orientation at all.[67]
This is true only for 4-dimensional spacetimes. In higher dimensions more complicated horizon topologies like a black ring are possible.[77][78]
In particular, he assumed that all matter satisfies the weak energy condition.
vamp.pnghttps://youngdracula.wikia.com/wiki/User:Queen_Armada Alien race of organisms that are all in the Vampire family.They were grown by creator Allah made.He was the first Vampire Regent.He then creatored and grew empire from Midi Chlorians.He fed military into them and from the galaxy they were in they adapted to their surroundings in outer space and became savage.They made Vampire troopers and had people beings mixed with this creature parasite.It was a space insect.Grew large and adapted to blackholes.Gained powers from Nova's and blackholes and confronted machines.War machines and integrated their victories to technology for war.They have inorganics as troopers with acid lasers.Speeds and flying in space as like hornets and wasps but very much larger in 30ft length and 3 storeys to 2 storeys tall.They were a expanding warmonger empire.They had victories and had high ranking military strategists with their inorganic grown swarms and hives.They harnessed energy in space and particles.Hives purpose was to used technological reactors.They had magazines and stores for war.Develeped barrier systems.Speed in mach 7 to mach 20 to mach 30 and mach 90.They lived in a system in space the "Dogon System" of space Africa.One of part of their empire.Dogon.They have sands in planets and spice sands.They have made even hives on stars,Nova.Adapting to Nova.They have warships.Vampire being race grew.It is a creature and a demon mixed.Deepest seas in space alien worlds.Hives on planets with poison gases and in the wilderness of alien worlds.Adapts to all surroundings it assimualtes and makes it adapted to war and terrain.They encounterd robotech in wars and beat them.Took the "Flower of Life".They had their organism inorganic troopers eat the flower to gain its properties.Make new troopers from eating "Flower of Life".They vampire became robotech with all of their organic experiments and engineering.Bio tech.They developed new weapons and more warships.New hives and technology from robotech.New evolution process from bitter war.Nibiru moon in space planet was a hive network with disintegrating force field radius far from Nibiru.Nibiru was to fool enemy and allow it to come closer loaded with all new hives had,reactors and stores and many Vampire troopers and manpower of all out war.Tunnel launch tubes.Hive searches and researches to go further.Make new inorganic troopers for war.Vampire hives are branching in blackhole universe.They are for culture of spores and to search for energies.They eat energy.They are towering planets are small balls.Huge with troopers.Vampire back in Galactica and its invasion of this universe have changed to do with robotech and more advanced technologies.They can manipulate mechas and robots.They are of large massive sizes of 20 tonnes to 7 tonnes.It depends on trooper.They are giant insects with intelligent large mind for battling machines.They are a space insect that has light armor layers.They are 35ft wide to 20 and get to 3storeys.They eat away and production on energies and can live in Nova and blackhole as its nests which are gargantuan size in many 100 miles in size and larger.Hives.They are like bees but are very dangerous and smart to warfare and collect knowledge of warfare from everyone they fight with.They fire acids but to modern day have military weapons but mutated to Vampire weapons so they are cyber organic.They must have machine troopers and cyber organic part metal part creature.It hunts as drones and soldiers to go out and oraganized attack in huge numbers and waves.It has a hive at war on enemy.It is very intelligent in war strategy.It is fierce and malicious.It is relentless.It is a warmonger.It combats.It will use fangs to tear and make minions.It has bases made of moons and they create their own moon hive inside core.It has Superweapons.Hives in Dune under sands.Bases throughout space in different environments.Harness and raises its resources for war.Radiation and plasma and organic energies.Very hybrid in technology and merger and create its own.Now they have humanoid shaped troopers.Rely on humanoid race Vampires for troops and support of Empire.Vampire regent is wise and very old and used to warfare.It speaks Vampire.He has a race of vampire soldiers and infantry to support the mecha creautures.It has a defensive barrier and rams itself into and collides into enemies and can bite through alloy and fires acid.Acid can be changed as a laser or used on enemies for war.They have Vampire war vessels.Vampire attack craft and carriers.All sorts of naval warships and cruisers.They had an original organic cyborg insects parasite.They are warmongers and fight with alot of war.They have an efficient and methodical attack and work on bio war.They have people vampires.Vampire because of their behaviour and adaptations as a vampire.Glowing red eyes and imortlity to die.They have fangs.They can fire laser acids.Gotten more modern than this and lay eggs in live beings and creatures.They eat the host and grow to size of 2 stories and start to fly and raise their force fields.They are led by their creator who is a Dracula but parasite insect.They are very intelligent,large brains.They have HELs.Their race are troops and are humanoid and much like white people but with properties like mutant.They are for war and they have fangs and eyes glow red.But Vampire hunter tactics work on them as any vampires.They are in the mecha era from fighting with mechas and learning.Their war fleets and they are also from Dogon.When they fight they acellerate and they fire acid lasers or attack with their claws and fangs to penetration gas tank,rip open and escape,their barrier force fields.The Quadrizillian trooper is a fierce soldier.It will take on and destroy enemies.It goes hand and hand with the scout.It opens it jaws snap a mecha to peices,Fangs sink in at mach 30.Battle is at mach 20.They are smart in war and use their experience and their instincts.They hatred Dragon.They will attatch themselves and physical combat.Send fighter out of control.They now from invid learned o swarming.Leviathon trooper is when they fought robotech they came up with a trooper with intelligence in attributes.It had agility,acelleration and guile.It could fool enemy to lower down and attack.It had new plasma lasers from pores.Self generated weapons.Fangs shear open metal.It can grow and seperate.Amoeba vampire.From their labratories,Vampire Regent said he wants a new trooper.It can do high speed yawing in space.They fight in millions.They have their hive Nibiru.Nibiru is a lab and station disguise as a planet.It has reinforced tunnels and has a generator core.It has troops inside,Vampire humans soldiers.They have a power armor.Types of bio wars they are skeeming.Meant to get closer and anything in a radius is desintegrated.Troopers launch out at mach 70 fast speeds.They must know about Star Trek.Some troopers like the Scout is poisonous like in Resident Evil gas.Poison agent.It is very cruel disease spreader.Parasite and in war.Highly parasitic and warfare fighter. e the text of your article here!http://robotech.wikia.com/wiki/Special:WikiActivity I know Vampires as a creature like the Invid and Inbit being a military warfaring creature empire of the black hole and it is a full vampire in its insect behaviour and adaptations to hiss glowing red eyes and Vampire Hivevam.png
Added by Queen Armada Vampire in my blood is activated from days in galaxy of Galactica exporation.An idiot Vampire female bit me on my neck back in 2000's and it was done again and now it has activated Vampire and signal to Vampires to come from Dogon on North America,Earth class Sol System.They take it with humour and keep challenging it because its real.Its been 6yrs and now Vampire knows of this homeworld and white race."Heart Shaped Box" is their only song.Vampire is like a bumblebee.Its a furry parasitic creature more than Xenomorph but has a race of Vampire people.Vampire has nothing to do with mullusk at all.They do not care about that design at all.They went to biological organism to make trooper.Trooper is 3.5 storeys hight.They have gone through many war victories in space in Dogon system.They can fight war with any Dragon.They retain being parasite creatures that lay eggs and make cocoon nest as they are furry black insect parasites.It has silver fangs and in an organism it has fangs to bite like a Vampire to spread and make slaves like Vampire.It has glowing red eyes and hisses loud that its defensive ready to combat.It will fire acid lasers that make a acid wash that covers the enemy and burns through.Its silver laser.It can produce energy fire in its blood and has natural systems to fire energy.Its system produces energy for war,attack.Its exterior hairs are harder than alloy bristles.Its body is designed for warfare.Its regent a Vampire had many early troopers made bio weapons.He had early computers and made schematics went into production.He had biological resources to manipulate and produce in evolution a working trooper as he made their warships to launch them.Vampire people insects manpower were developed soldiers and ranks.They were a race with Vampire Regent.He had his race grow bigger and war violent.They had space weaponry for bad guys.Naval ships had crew interact with giant creature troopers.They had these bio weapons aboard their ships to transport them to war across space.Launch them to warfare at mach 30 speeds.They are oldest creature in space.They have fangs system that spreads being insect vampire.They are parasites.Humanoids that do types of alien infantry warfare.They win in other galaxies.Improvised on more than beginning as new Vampire Regent focused on soldier beings more and another on naval forces crew.They got better and better.They have shields and energy weapons on their vessels.They had their own technology of self generating force field from Vampire technology.Raises when the trooper goes to war.Lower but gets activated from enemy attacks.Now they have some sort of moon they have developed as a hive of operations.It has naval ships and trooper creature bio weapons.Bio weapon troopers are made for war.They have a base of operations that uses biological technology mixed with alloys and materials.It conceals them from enemies as they think that its biological and not alloy.Yet strengthened like alloy.They have network of stations.Inside the moon are stations that are of biological material and alloy.They have so many stations and devices inside to make them formidable attack at launching and sending troopers and troops to areas and send them assault in space.Main parts of moon hive that it has where the high ranks and Vampire Regent are.It has where production and resources.Power supply and hangars.Complex network for military in space.Caters to warships.They have fleets inside.They have weapons of moon and its batteries and other superweapons.Moon has some sort of force field that can destroy and vapourize in a radius to moon.It can travel and creep up on galaxies,solar systems.Been in war.Vampire soaks itself in bacteria to eat and wash.Its like a fly.It though wants a virus or bacteria.Its not filthy for crap.It wants a biological bio agent.It likes powder and gas it eats up from its body as its an alien creature and does not gorge through the mouth.It has bio agent soak into its body to go to vital systems to recharge.It eats bio weapon.It makes it stronger.No effect on Vampire.Symbiotic is something the vampire can do parasitic and in war.On space fighter it uses this to eat away on alloy til it explodes and it lets go.It can grip onto things symbiotic.Uses symbiotic to spread on enemy and grab.It can move and stretch itself because its an alien insect creature.It uses it for flight.It can reach and attack symbiotic.Extend out mouth full of razor fangs it hides to bite into mecha or military machine.Its body has symbiotic functions.And its organic trooper creatures which are 40ft long and few stories high.It is symbiotic an organism and it can crawl symbiotic.Organism can change shape to get through hard to get passages and reform up in a hangar area.It hunts like this.Ones born from ocean.It can go 50mph crawling.It reaches to things to bite them with its fangs like enemy mecha that its fangs rip right through.It will hit the powerplant and make it overload and smoke.Then it does a zero g monuver like a UFO and is safe distance from explosion as it has learned in early warfare from ancient and prehistoric days of space.It was early creature in creation of space and other dimensions.It had early version beginning of space as one of space's early creatures that replicated itself and was supervised by a creature humanoid that is their Regent Vampire who cares deeply for Vampires and his race.He does things to make them for war.Manpower and strategists for war.And their production of bio weapons.Stock up on them and make sure that this alien is born for war.Launched it comes out with results.Its like a bumblebee though and will not do an assault like a mullusk.It is like a hive attack of swarm at most.When they swarm because they are like wasps.They are much like Yellow Jacket.They do war like them but are made for war.They all are war intelligent being creatures that communicate to each other and act in 4's and 5's or hundreds or more.They talk to each other like soldiers of war.They know of trap and will call to each other and move right commands.They follow compicated commands.Vampires the soldiers and ranks work hand in hand with bio weapon troop creatures.They all work co-ordinated and talk like alien insects to each other and adjusted to war.They communicate and hiss.Glow red in eyes.They are smarter than machines and have a cyborg brain.Part metal part organic.This creature mergered with alloy in giving itself structure and symbiotic organism gained shape.Insect alien transferred into material of moon,alloy.It used to live inside them.Symbiotic an organism needed alloy to make a structure.It must have a sting of some sort that destroys enemy machines.[[imagekusoCartoon_14276622570316_.jpg]]kusoCartoon_14789122654259_.jpg
Vampire hives blackhole universe http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Insectoid http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Parasite http://stargate.wikia.com/wiki/Parasite http://kiseijuu.wikia.com/wiki/Parasites http://residentevil.wikia.com/Parasite http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Parasite http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Category:Microorganisms http://stargate.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Biology http://thething.wikia.com/wiki/The_Thing_%28organism%29 http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Biology http://horror.wikia.com/wiki/Leviathan
Added by Queen Armada
survive death.Parasite and fly at space KM per hour.Troopers.And Vampire Regent Draculas.Dracula family outer space.Nibiru hive.http://robotech.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/Vampire Genious mind in warfare outer space.http://en.battlestarwiki.org/wiki/Main_Page http://www.oocities.org/tokyo/spa/5972/ http://www.oocities.org/tokyo/spa/5972/mecha.html http://www.oocities.org/spiffy5181/navy.html http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Portal:Main All of the Vampires war enemies and territories of war they conquered in space American territory of galaxy of Gattaca,outer edge of galaxy of Galactica. http://www.csicop.org/si/show/myth_of_nibiru_and_the_end_of_the_world_in_2012/ http://gundam.wikia.com/wiki/The_Gundam_Wiki The Vampire is a MIdi Chlorian that is a creature http://residentevil.wikia.com/Resident_Evil_Wiki Darth Plagueis Domino WWE Al Kaline invented in labratory as Allah Pak.Jedi Master had this creature invented.It then made an empire and formed troopers millions upon millions of years ago before any animals.Insects evolved to do war and Vampire troopers part particles
Added by Queen Armada
conquer.Merged with people in black hole,their Regent Count Dracula and his family,
[1] Count Dracula Vampire Regent Starting with the French anthropologist Marcel Griaule, several authors have claimed that Dogon traditional religion incorporates details about extrasolar astronomical bodies that could not have been discerned from naked-eye observation. This idea has entered the New Age and ancient astronaut literature as evidence that extraterrestrial aliens visited Mali in the distant past. Other authors have argued that previous 20th-century European visitors to the Dogon are a far more plausible source of such information, as well as disputing whether Griaule's account accurately describes Dogon myths at all.

From 1931 to 1956, Griaule studied the Dogon in field missions ranging from several days to two months in 1931, 1935, 1937 and 1938[30] and then annually from 1946 until 1956.[31] In late 1946, Griaule spent a consecutive thirty-three days in conversations with the Dogon wiseman Ogotemmêli, the source of much of Griaule and Dieterlen's future publications.[32] They reported that the Dogon believe that the brightest star in the night sky, Sirius (sigi tolo or "star of the Sigui"[33]), has two companion stars, pō tolo (the Digitaria star), and ęmmę ya tolo, (the female Sorghum star), respectively the first and second companions of Sirius A.[34] Sirius, in the Dogon system, formed one of the foci for the orbit of a tiny star, the companionate Digitaria star. When Digitaria is closest to Sirius, that star brightens: when it is farthest from Sirius, it gives off a twinkling effect that suggests to the observer several stars. The orbit cycle takes 50 years.[35] They also claimed that the Dogon appeared to know of the rings of Saturn, and the moons of Jupiter.[36]

Griaule and Dieterlen were puzzled by this Sudanese star system, and prefaced their analysis with the disclaimer, "The problem of knowing how, with no instruments at their disposal, men could know the movements and certain characteristics of virtually invisible stars has not been settled, nor even posed."[37]

In 1976, Robert K. G. Temple wrote a book called The Sirius Mystery arguing that the Dogon's system reveals precise knowledge of cosmological facts known only by the development of modern astronomy, since they appear to know, from Griaule and Dieterlen's account, that Sirius is part of a binary star system, whose second star, Sirius B, a white dwarf, is however completely invisible to the human eye (just as Digitaria has the smallest grain known to the Dogon) and that it takes 50 years to complete its orbit. The existence of Sirius B had only been inferred to exist through mathematical calculations undertaken by Friedrich Bessel in 1844. Temple then argued that the Dogon's information, if traced back to ancient Egyptian sources and myth, indicates an extraterrestrial transmission of knowledge of the stars.[38] Neither Griaule nor Dieterlen had ever made such bold claims about a putative esoteric source for the Dogon's knowledge.

More recently, doubts have been raised about the validity of Griaule and Dieterlein's work.[39][40] In a 1991 article in Current Anthropology, anthropologist Walter van Beek concluded after his research among the Dogon that, "Though they do speak about sigu tolo [which is what Griaule claimed the Dogon called Sirius] they disagree completely with each other as to which star is meant; for some it is an invisible star that should rise to announce the sigu [festival], for another it is Venus that, through a different position, appears as sigu tolo. All agree, however, that they learned about the star from Griaule."[41]

Griaule's daughter Geneviève Calame-Griaule responded in a later issue, arguing that Van Beek did not go "through the appropriate steps for acquiring knowledge" and suggesting that van Beek's Dogon informants may have thought that he had been "sent by the political and administrative authorities to test the Dogon's Muslim orthodoxy".[42] An independent assessment is given by Andrew Apter of the University of California.[43]

In a 1978 critique, skeptic Ian Ridpath concluded: "There are any number of channels by which the Dogon could have received Western knowledge long before they were visited by Griaule and Dieterlen."[44] In his book Sirius Matters, Noah Brosch postulates that the Dogon may have had contact with astronomers based in Dogon territory during a five-week expedition, led by Henri-Alexandre Deslandres, to study the solar eclipse of 16 April 1893.[45]

Robert Todd Carroll also states that a more likely source of the knowledge of the Sirius star system is from contemporary, terrestrial sources who provided information to interested members of the tribes.[46] James Oberg, however, citing these suspicions notes their completely speculative nature, writing that, "The obviously advanced astronomical knowledge must have come from somewhere, but is it an ancient bequest or a modern graft? Although Temple fails to prove its antiquity, the evidence for the recent acquisition of the information is still entirely circumstantial."[47] Additionally, James Clifford notes that Griaule sought informants best qualified to speak of traditional lore, and deeply mistrusted converts to Christianity, Islam, or people with too much contact with whites.[48]

Oberg points out a number of errors contained in the Dogon beliefs, including the number of moons possessed by Jupiter, that Saturn was the furthest planet from the sun, and the only planet with rings. Intrigue of other seemingly falsifiable claims, namely concerning a red dwarf star orbiting around Sirius (not hypothesized until the 1950s) led him to entertain a previous challenge by Temple, asserting that "Temple offered another line of reasoning. 'We have in the Dogon information a predictive mechanism which it is our duty to test, regardless of our preconceptions.' One example: 'If a Sirius-C is ever discovered and found to be a red dwarf, I will conclude that the Dogon information has been fully validated.'

This alludes to reports that the Dogon knew of another star in the Sirius system, Ęmmę Ya, or a star "larger than Sirius B but lighter and dim in magnitude". In 1995, gravitational studies indeed showed the possible presence of a brown dwarf star orbiting around Sirius (a Sirius-C) with a six-year orbital period.[49] A more recent study using advanced infrared imaging concluded that the probability of the existence of a triple star system for Sirius is "now low" but could not be ruled out because the region within 5 AU of Sirius A had not been covered.[50] Added by Queen Armada A Bio Organic Weapon or B.O.W. for short was a general term used by several organizations and a number of researchers to refer to a creature that was intentionally created or genetically modified by using a type of mutagen to become killing machines.[1] The Bio Organic Weapons are a major focus of research for the Umbrella Corporation. After the discovery of the Progenitor virus by Umbrella's founders, the corporation sought to create creatures and beasts of destructive powers. Several successful examples included the Tyrant series, Hunters and Lickers.
Contents[hide]

History
Finding the Progenitor Virus
First creations
Spread
Action against B.O.W.s
Species
Lickers
Tyrants
Hunters
Plaga
J'avo
Uroboros
Others
Sources

HistoryEdit
Finding the Progenitor VirusEdit

Although the presence of B.O.W.s did not occur until much later, the first recorded research of attempted mutation was after the establishment of the Progenitor virus. The evidence of a flower in Western Africa arose from the notes of Henry Travis which are found by Spencer and Edward Ashford. After securing the flower with Dr. James Marcus and Marcus' assistant, Brandon Bailey, Spencer saw to the creation of a secluded mansion in the Arklay Mountains, housing a laboratory beneath. Jessica Trevor and Lisa Trevor, wife and daughter of the mansion architect, George Trevor became the first official test subjects of the Progenitor and attempts at provoking viral mutations. Although Lisa was not intended as a B.O.W., the results of the experiments that ran on her with the Progenitor and later variations of viral agents are crucial to the production of bio-weapons years later.
First creations Edit
EliminatorUC 0

One of Umbrella's first B.O.W.

The first official experiments and attempts at creating B.O.W.s occurred in the Arklay Laboratory in the late 90s. The animals are used as the first primary subjects, eventually leading to the creation of monsters such as mutated dobermans and monkeys, giant frogs and spiders including one with a peculiar reaction. Shortly after, the experiments on human subjects began which was the use of Umbrella's stance as a pharmaceutical company used to disguise the virus as a new medicine. This set off a chain-reaction that Umbrella could not have possibly predicted,including many bizarre mutations from human subjects, a horrific outbreak purposely leaked by a resurrected Marcus and the discovery of new viral agents.

The laboratory in Arklay was not the only source of manufacturing B.O.W.s. Rockfort Island, Sheena Island and even Raccoon City itself are just some of the places where laboratories are found where various other experiments in creating bio-weapons from viral agents occurred.
SpreadEdit

After the fall of Umbrella following Raccoon City's destruction, B.O.W.s along with viral agents became popular on the black market throughout the world for various uses. Much like the U.S. Government did in the past in supporting Umbrella, some government militaries sought weapons and viruses as it was seen with President Svetlana Belikova in the Eastern Slav Republic or the president of the Republic of Bajirib, Miguel Grandé. In other instances such as those seen with Jack Norman and his organization, Il Veltro, B.O.W.s are used for the sake of instilling fear instead of direct combat usage.
Image-7

A massive B.O.W. being used in battlefield

Experimentation on new weapons was still active, seen as late as 2013 when the head of an organization known as The Family, Derek C. Simmons, released a new virus in the small city of Tall Oaks to assassinate U.S. President Adam Benford. Not only did this show the production of more adept zombies, but also saw the release of a deadly new B.O.W. capable of spreading infection easier, although it was hardly the only creation. Carla Radames, a former researcher for Simmons perfected the virus and used it as a means of infection earlier in Edonia, Eastern Europe and later in 2013 in Lanshiang, China to create new intelligent B.O.W.s called the J'avo.
Action against B.O.W.sEdit

The widespread usage of B.O.W.s saw to the creation of the Federal Bioterrorism Commission and the Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance, although the FBC was eventually dissolved into the BSAA. The BSAA was created as a non-government organization, gaining funding and support from their founders, the Federation of Pharmaceutical Companies and officially backed by the United Nations. Along with dealing with threats of bioterrorism, the BSAA was directly responsible with disposing of B.O.W.s and viral agents used in these acts as well as apprehending the bioterrorists.

The United States did not respond favorably to the existence of the BSAA, particularly after the controversy of the FBC and it's leader's involvement in bioterrorism. This resulted in the creation of the Division of Security Operations, a group of federal agents under the direct orders of the U.S. President to deal with any U.S.-specific threats of weapons employed by bioterrorists or bioterror attacks.
SpeciesEdit

To fulfill the bioterrorists' needs, the viral weapons and parasites used to create B.O.W.s were altered significantly to infect and mutate a species or type of living organism perfectly. Some of these mutagens were able to mutate through cross-species, while others simply mutate/bond with one species, and don't bond well with another species.
LickersEdit

Being a type of marketable B.O.W., the Lickers are known for their agility and destructiveness as a bio-weapon. Lickers are the most common produced type of B.O.W., and as such, they have appeared in many bioterror attacks. There are at least four types of Licker, two of which are enhanced using the Progenitor Virus and modified Las Plagas.
TyrantsEdit

The Tyrants were originally planned as super soldiers who could withstand many fatal blows and still survive. Over time, the Tyrants were eventually created as a terrorist's ultimate weapon, due to its unmatched strength and durability. However, an individual whose genetic structure is ideal to create a Tyrant is incredibly rare and is the main reason why Tyrants are less likely to be produced, even by the Umbrella Corporation.
HuntersEdit

Along with Lickers, Hunters are also popular B.O.W.s among terrorist groups. The Hunters were altered in many ways to create and produce different types of Hunter B.O.W.s, although in some cases, their ferociousness means that anyone who deploys them on the battle field must take extreme caution as Hunters also tend to attack their commanders.
PlagaEdit

First discovered in a rural European country, Las Plagas were used by a cult named Los Iluminados to infect and gather as many followers as they could. After being discovered by The Organization, Las Plagas that once bred by Los Iluminados was experimented by Albert Wesker and Tricell Corporation to manufacture new species of Plagas as marketable B.O.W.s, leading to the infamous Kijuju Outbreak in Africa. Later during the Eastern Slav civil war, Plagas are once again being used by the rebels in war, showing that Las Plagas is a useful yet deadly bio-weapon.
J'avoEdit

These new species of B.O.W.s are manufactured by Neo Umbrella, a new bioterrorist organization founded by Carla Radames. Compared to the commonly used zombies to feed on their victims, these J'avo are capable of orchestrating abduction, terrorism, massacre and commanding lesser B.O.W.s in battle ground. The J'avo only take orders from their highest leader, most prominently the ones who created them.
Uroboros Edit
Durga1

A Uroboros B.O.W. made by Alex Wesker.

Due to the highly dangerous nature of Uroboros virus, only a handful of Uroboros-based B.O.W. are created by Albert Wesker. Years after his death, Alex Wesker and her subordinates located his laboratory compound and retrieved the samples of the Uroboros virus to create B.O.W.s such as the Revenant, Slinger and Splasher. After Alex's confirmed death, the BSAA eradicated all of the known traces of the virus and B.O.W.s.
OthersEdit

Many other lifeforms were also used as B.O.W. although their usage are less frequent, and many of these did not find particular success in the B.O.W market. Known marketed B.O.Ws include Eliminators, Plague Crawlers, Ivys, Giant Spiders (specifically the Jumping Man-Eater variant), Neptunes, Anubis, and Jabberwock S3. Outbreaks of the T-Virus or other mutagenic viruses have been known to produce B.O.W-like creatures as a result of secondary infection or the unpredicted mutation of human hosts. These creatures are sometimes referred to as "irregular mutations", but are distinguished from B.O.Ws because they are neither intentional experiments nor directly sold on the bio-weapon market. Examples of the irregular mutants are the Zombie Dog, Giant Alligator, Globster and Scagdead . They could fight military machines in warfare and out match and out preform fighters and fired acid laser on them from their pores.Their insects were not over sized,20 to 30ft dimensions and a few stories big.20ft tall or more.Troopers.Generate its own barrier from its body and nervous
[2]Venom VampireAdded by Queen Armadasystem.And they live in the hives in black hole and sands of Dune.Long branching 100's miles long and more hives.Network and inside is Dracula family leaders.Space names.They have a magazine.Vampire is on cave paintings for us to decode.It is from Dogon.That universe we don't know where Dogon is but it did war on Galactica.They have a hive that is a base looks like a planet and it got past many deathstars.This creature when you use biological warfare its like germs of giant fly.It will eat and absorb up biological war as food and power.It will deliberately hit biological weapons stores.Because your firing germs on a creature that thrives on eating germs just a fly does.This creature invades parasitic like dogs in Resident Evil split apart.There must be 2 species of them.Ones from direction of UFP and ones towards Galactica.The Dogon Vampires are more fierce and do more war on humanity and any aliens.The thing is a war master.It knows what to do when military is unloading but to their weakest.Its very wise and knows how to extinction many alien races it outsmarted.It has giant troopers that are 3 stories but can crouch to hide in subdivisions from flying fighters.It fought robotech or a race and won.It used a jammer system of biology and organic mixed like cyborg to fool fighters to not detect them hidden crouched lower than homes.It would hide in urban city.Not underground.Use jammers in its mind.It would hit the sewers and make hive.This is a base that eggs hatch to grow from 5ft to grow to trooper and veteran at many stories high.3 stories tall.Wide.They are compact a creature that is why humanity fights them they hide in urban areas well.They bite a tank as their fangs can peirce through armor.It has a lunge where it grabs onto a tank and wrecks it up to explode.It fangs from head area of the insect trooper.Bite and throw the tank at another and it will overheat and explode as fighters.It fires a sulphuric acid as a laser its biology makes.Acid or laser disolves through eats metal.It must b be able to spew out acid on mechas and any other tanks and war machines.Eat away and the fighter will explode.It has monuverability like a UFO.They have a large size in 35 to 40 ft troopers.It can separate to bite with its teeth.And it has eaten the Flower of Life http://robotech.wikia.com/wiki/Flower_of_Life http://robotechvisions.wikia.com/wiki/Flower_of_Life http://gundam.wikia.com/wiki/Flower_of_Life http://www.robotech.com/infopedia/encyclopedia/viewterm.php?id=32 http://ptn.home.xs4all.nl/Essay/protoculture.html .Now it has answers to robotech.
The History Of Germ Warfare -
Very Long, Very Deadly
By Michael Woods
Block News Alliance
10-31-1

The Nibiru cataclysm is a supposed disastrous encounter between the Earth and a large planetary object (either a collision or a near-miss) that certain groups believe will take place in the early 21st century. Believers in this doomsday event usually refer to this object as Nibiru or Planet X. The idea was first put forward in 1995 by Nancy Lieder,[2][3] founder of the website ZetaTalk. Lieder describes herself as a contactee with the ability to receive messages from extraterrestrials from the Zeta Reticuli star system through an implant in her brain. She states that she was chosen to warn mankind that the object would sweep through the inner Solar System in May 2003 (though that date was later postponed) causing Earth to undergo a physical pole shift that would destroy most of humanity.[4]

The prediction has subsequently spread beyond Lieder's website and has been embraced by numerous Internet doomsday groups. In the late 2000s, it became closely associated with the 2012 phenomenon. Since 2012, the Nibiru cataclysm has frequently reappeared in the popular media, usually linked to newsmaking astronomical objects such as Comet ISON or Planet Nine. Although the name "Nibiru" is derived from the works of the ancient astronaut writer Zecharia Sitchin and his interpretations of Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, he denied any connection between his work and various claims of a coming apocalypse. A prediction by self-described "Christian numerologist" David Meade that the Nibiru cataclysm would occur on 23 September 2017 received extensive media coverage.

The idea that a planet-sized object will collide with or closely pass by Earth in the near future is not supported by any scientific evidence and has been rejected by astronomers and planetary scientists as pseudoscience and an Internet hoax.[5][6] Such an object would have destabilised the orbits of the planets to the extent that their effects would be easily observable today.[7] Astronomers have hypothesized many planets beyond Neptune, and though many have been disproved, there are some that remain viable candidates such as Planet Nine. All the current candidates are in orbits that keep them well beyond Neptune throughout their orbit, even when they are closest to the Sun.
Contents

1 History
1.1 Nancy Lieder and ZetaTalk
1.2 Zecharia Sitchin and Sumer
1.3 2012 and the Mayan calendar
1.4 2017 revival
2 Scientific rejection
3 Conspiracy theories
4 Misappellations
4.1 Planet X
4.2 Hercolubus
4.3 Nemesis
4.4 Sedna or Eris
4.5 Tyche
4.6 Comet Elenin
4.7 Comet ISON
4.8 Planet Nine
4.9 2016 WF9
5 Public reaction
6 Cultural influence
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

History
Nancy Lieder and ZetaTalk
Nancy Lieder is seen from the neck up in front of a background of grey alien faces
Nancy Lieder in June 2013

The idea of the Nibiru encounter originated with Nancy Lieder, a Wisconsin woman who claims that as a girl she was contacted by gray extraterrestrials called Zetas, who implanted a communications device in her brain. In 1995, she founded the website ZetaTalk to disseminate her ideas.[8] Lieder first came to public attention on Internet newsgroups during the build-up to Comet Hale–Bopp's 1997 perihelion. She stated, claiming to speak as the Zetas,[9] that "The Hale–Bopp comet does not exist. It is a fraud, perpetrated by those who would have the teeming masses quiescent until it is too late. Hale–Bopp is nothing more than a distant star, and will draw no closer."[9] She claimed that the Hale–Bopp story was manufactured to distract people from the imminent arrival of a large planetary object, "Planet X", which would soon pass by Earth and destroy civilization.[9] After Hale–Bopp's perihelion revealed it as one of the brightest and longest-observed comets of the last century,[10] Lieder removed the first two sentences of her initial statement from her site, though they can still be found in Google's archives.[9] Her claims eventually made the New York Times.[11]

Lieder described Planet X as roughly four times the size of the Earth, and said that its closest approach would occur on May 27, 2003, resulting in the Earth's rotation ceasing for exactly 5.9 terrestrial days. This would be followed by the Earth's pole destabilising in a pole shift (a physical pole shift, with the Earth's pole physically moving, rather than a geomagnetic reversal) caused by magnetic attraction between the Earth's core and the magnetism of the passing planet. This in turn would disrupt the Earth's magnetic core and lead to subsequent displacement of the Earth's crust.[12] After the 2003 date passed without incident, Lieder said that it was merely a "white lie … to fool the establishment."[13] She refused to disclose the true date, saying that to do so would give those in power enough time to declare martial law and trap people in cities during the shift, leading to their deaths.[14]
Zecharia Sitchin and Sumer

Although Lieder originally referred to the object as "Planet X", it has become deeply associated with Nibiru, a planet from the works of ancient astronaut proponent Zecharia Sitchin, particularly his book The 12th Planet. According to Sitchin's interpretation of ancient Mesopotamian religious texts, which contradicts conclusions reached by any and all credited scholars of Mesopotamian history,[15][16] a giant planet (called Nibiru or Marduk) passes by Earth every 3,600 years, allowing its sentient inhabitants to interact with humanity.[16] Sitchin identified these beings with the Anunnaki in Sumerian mythology and claimed that they were humanity's first gods.[17][16] Lieder first made the connection between Nibiru and her Planet X on her site in 1996 ("Planet X does exist, and it is the 12th Planet, one and the same.").[18]

However, Sitchin, who died in 2010, denied any connection between his work and Lieder's claims. In 2007, partly in response to Lieder's proclamations, Sitchin published a book, The End of Days, which set the time for the last passing of Nibiru by Earth at 556 BC, which would mean, given the object's supposed 3,600-year orbit, that it would return sometime around AD 2900.[19] He did however say that he believed that the Annunaki might return earlier by spaceship, and that the timing of their return would coincide with the shift from the astrological Age of Pisces to the Age of Aquarius, sometime between 2090 and 2370.[20]
2012 and the Mayan calendar
Main article: 2012 phenomenon

Though Lieder herself has not specified a new date for the object's return, many groups have taken up her idea and cited their own dates. One frequently cited date was December 21, 2012. This date had many apocalyptic associations, as it was the end of a cycle (baktun) in the long count in the Mayan calendar. Several writers published books connecting the encounter with 2012.[21] Despite that date having passed, many websites still contend that Nibiru/Planet X is en route to Earth.[22]

In 2012, Lieder claimed that U.S. President Barack Obama futilely attempted to announce the presence of Nibiru near the Sun.[23] After 2012, she claimed that several world leaders had intended to announce the presence of Nibiru near the Sun on October 20, 2014. Two weeks after the supposed date of announcement, she claimed that it did not occur because of consternation amongst the establishment.[24]
2017 revival
See also: Revelation 12 sign prophecy and David Meade (author)
a woman in robes and a shawl with a halo of stars behind her head stands on a blue ball encircled by a serpent
David Meade believed that Nibiru's arrival on 23 September 2017 was tied to an astrological reading of the Woman of the Apocalypse.[25][26]

In 2017, a conspiracy theorist and self-proclaimed "Christian numerologist" named David Meade revived the Nibiru cataclysm by tying it to various passages from the Bible.[27] Meade declared that these passages contained secret numerological codes, which revealed the exact date on which Nibiru would arrive.[26] He also based his predictions on the geometry of the Giza Pyramids.[25] Meade initially predicted that Nibiru would arrive in October 2017,[27] but he later revised the date back to 23 September.[28][29] The specific focus of his prediction revolved around the Woman of the Apocalypse referring to a supposedly unique configuration on that date of the Sun, Moon, and planets in Virgo.[29] He cited the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 as a harbinger.[30][31][32]

Meade's claims received extensive media attention.[30][31][32] Viral fake news stories circulated across the Internet, adducing non-existent confirmations by NASA of Nibiru's existence on a course "headed straight for Earth".[33][8][34] In reality, NASA's position is, and always has been, that Nibiru does not exist.[33][8][34][35][36][37][38] Meade also faced criticism from fellow Christians; Ed Stetzer, writing for Christianity Today, stated that "there is no such thing as a 'Christian numerologist'",[39] and described Meade as "a made-up expert in a made-up field talking about a made-up event."[39] Christopher M. Graney, a professor with the Vatican Observatory Foundation, noted that the supposedly unique event was, in fact, quite common, having occurred four times in the last millennium.[29] His September 23rd theories were also debunked by Time writer Jeff Kluger.[40] Brazilian astronomer Duília de Mello called his predictions and theories rubbish, and also said Nibiru would have been seen during the eclipse and that Meade was using calculations based on the Gregorian calendar.[41]

After his predictions failed to come true, Meade revised them and declared that Nibiru would arrive on 5 October 2017, not on 23 September.[42][43] Meade announced that, on 5 October, Nibiru would eclipse the Sun, and North Korea, China, and Russia would launch a combined nuclear attack on the United States.[43] Then, the earth would be devastated by a series of magnitude 9.8 earthquakes, the earth's magnetic pole would shift by 30 degrees, the United States would be split in half, and Barack Obama would be elected president for an unconstitutional third term.[44] He predicted that the seven-year Great Tribulation would begin on 15 October.[45]

When October came, another apocalyptic writer, Terral Croft, predicted the arrival of Nibiru for November 19, a prediction again reported in the British tabloid press. Croft describes Nibiru as a "black star" at the edge of our Solar System, which, rather than colliding with Earth, would form an apocalyptic conjunction with Earth, leading to massive earthquakes. Croft claimed that earthquakes have been increasing worldwide in the leadup to the conjunction, though The Washington Post, quoting the United States Geological Survey, was quick to point out that earthquakes had decreased in both power and frequency over the year.[46] Paul Begley, a YouTube conspiracy theorist and pastor at the Community Gospel Baptist Church in Knox, Indiana, also predicted in one of his YouTube videos that Nibiru would appear in 2017 and declared that the solar eclipse was a sign of the apocalypse and the rogue planet.[47] Around 12 April 2018, Meade cited an alleged 23 April astrological conjunction in Virgo and predicted that Nibiru would appear during the conjunction and presage the Rapture; Space.com needled that nothing resembling such a conjunction is actually forecast for 23 April.[48]
Scientific rejection

Astronomers reject the idea of Nibiru, and have made efforts to inform the public that there is no threat to Earth.[49] They point out that such an object so close to Earth would be easily visible to the naked eye, and would create noticeable effects in the orbits of the outer planets.[50][21] Most photographs purporting to show "Nibiru" beside the Sun are lens flares, false images of the Sun created by reflections within the lens.[51] Claims that the object has been concealed behind the Sun are untenable.[21]

An orbit like that of Nibiru within our Solar System is inconsistent with celestial mechanics. David Morrison, NASA space scientist explains that after just one previous flyby of Earth, such as they claim happened in Sumerian times, Earth itself would no longer be in its current near circular orbit and would be likely to have lost its Moon. If Nibiru were a brown dwarf it would have even worse effects, as brown dwarfs are far more massive.[52] Since Pluto is now frequently observed by backyard telescopes, any giant planet beyond Pluto would be easily observed by an amateur astronomer.[50] And if such an object existed in our Solar System, it would have passed through the inner Solar System a million times by now. [52]

Astronomer Mike Brown notes that if this object's orbit were as described, it would only have remained in the Solar System for about a million years before Jupiter expelled it, and, even if such a planet existed, its magnetic field would have no effect on Earth's.[53] Lieder's assertions that the approach of Nibiru would cause the Earth's rotation to stop or its axis to shift violate the laws of physics. In his rebuttal of Immanuel Velikovsky's Worlds in Collision, which made the same claim that the Earth's rotation could be stopped and then restarted, Carl Sagan noted that, "the energy required to brake the Earth is not enough to melt it, although it would result in a noticeable increase in temperature: The oceans would [be] raised to the boiling point of water … [Also,] how does the Earth get started up again, rotating at approximately the same rate of spin? The Earth cannot do it by itself, because of the law of the conservation of angular momentum."[54]

In a 2009 interview with the Discovery Channel, Mike Brown noted that, while it is not impossible that the Sun has a distant planetary companion, such an object would have to be lying very far from the observed regions of the Solar System to have no detectable gravitational effect on the other planets. A Mars-sized object could lie undetected at 300 AU (10 times the distance of Neptune); a Jupiter-sized object at 30,000 AU. To travel 1000 AU in two years, an object would need to be moving at 2400 km/s – faster than the galactic escape velocity. At that speed, any object would be shot out of the Solar System, and then out of the Milky Way galaxy into intergalactic space.[55]
Conspiracy theories

Many believers in the imminent approach of Planet X/Nibiru accuse NASA of deliberately covering up visual evidence of its existence.[56] Polls have suggested that many perceive NASA as a vast government agency that receives as much funding as the Department of Defense.[52] In fact NASA's budget amounts to roughly 0.5% of that of the US government.[57]

One such accusation involves the IRAS infrared space observatory, launched in 1983. The satellite briefly made headlines due to an "unknown object" that was at first described as "possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this Solar System".[58] This newspaper article has been cited by proponents of the Nibiru cataclysm, beginning with Lieder herself, as evidence for the existence of Nibiru.[59] However, further analysis revealed that of several initially unidentified objects, nine were distant galaxies and the tenth was "galactic cirrus"; none were found to be Solar System bodies.[60]
The red star from the opening image, set against a series of smaller images, each showing the brown cloud growing larger
NASA images showing the expansion of a light echo around V838 Mon, between 2002 and 2004

Another accusation frequently made by websites predicting the collision is that the U.S. government built the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to track Nibiru's trajectory, and that the object has been imaged optically.[61] However, the SPT (which is not funded by NASA) is a radio telescope, and cannot take optical images. Its South Pole location was chosen due to the low-humidity environment, and there is no way an approaching object could be seen only from the South Pole.[62] The "picture" of Nibiru posted on YouTube was revealed, in fact, to be a Hubble image of the expanding light echo around the star V838 Mon.[61]

Another conspiracy claim regards a patch of missing data in Google Sky near the constellation of Orion, which has often been cited as evidence that Nibiru has been redacted. However, the same region of sky can still be viewed by thousands of amateur astronomers. A scientist at Google said that the missing data is due to a glitch in the stitching software used to piece the images together.[63]

Another piece of claimed evidence drawn from Google Sky is the carbon star CW Leonis, which is the brightest object in the 10 μm infrared sky and is frequently claimed to be Nibiru.[64]
Misappellations

Believers in Planet X/Nibiru have given it many names since it was first proposed. All are, in fact, names for other real, hypothetical or imaginary Solar System objects that bear little resemblance either to the planet described by Lieder or to Nibiru as described by Sitchin.
Planet X

Lieder drew the name Planet X from the hypothetical planet once searched for by astronomers to account for discrepancies in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.[18] In 1894, Bostonian astronomer Percival Lowell became convinced that the planets Uranus and Neptune had slight discrepancies in their orbits. He concluded that they were being tugged by the gravity of another, more distant planet, which he called "Planet X".[65] However, nearly a century of searching failed to turn up any evidence for such an object (Pluto was initially believed to be Planet X, but was later determined to be too small).[66]

The discrepancies remained through to the 1990s when the astronomer Robert Harrington put forward his hypothesis for an extra planet beyond Neptune with, as one example, a semi-major axis 101.2 AU and eccentricity 0.411 which makes its perihelion 59.60, so the closest to the Sun it would get is one and a half times the distance to Pluto.[67]

Six months before Harrington died of throat cancer[68][69] in 1992, astronomer Myles Standish showed that the supposed discrepancies in the planets' orbits were illusory, the product of overestimating the mass of Neptune.[70] When Neptune's newly determined mass was used in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Developmental Ephemeris (JPL DE), the supposed discrepancies in the Uranian orbit, and with them the need for a Planet X, vanished.[71] There are no discrepancies in the trajectories of any space probes such as Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 that can be attributed to the gravitational pull of a large undiscovered object in the outer Solar System.[72] Today astronomers accept that Planet X, as originally defined, does not exist.[73]

Although its mission did not involve a search for Planet X, the IRAS space observatory made headlines briefly in 1983 due to an "unknown object" that was at first described as "possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this Solar System".[74] Further analysis revealed that of several unidentified objects, nine were distant galaxies and the tenth was "interstellar cirrus"; none were found to be Solar System bodies.[75]. This is frequently claimed to be an observation of 'Nibiru'.
Hercolubus
photograph of stars with an arrow pointing to one of them
Photograph taken in 2006 showing Barnard's star, which V. M. Rabolu claimed to actually be the planet Hercolubus

In 1999, New Age author V. M. Rabolu wrote in Hercolubus or Red Planet that Barnard's star is actually a planet known to the ancients as Hercolubus, which purportedly came dangerously close to Earth in the past, destroying Atlantis, and will come close to Earth again.[76] Lieder subsequently used Rabolu's ideas to bolster her claims.[77]

Barnard's star has been directly measured to be 5.98 ± 0.003 light years (56.6 Pm) from Earth .[78] While it is approaching Earth, Barnard's Star will not make its closest approach to the Sun until around 11,700 AD, when it will approach to within some 3.8 light-years.[79] This is only slightly closer than the closest star to the Sun (Proxima Centauri) lies today.
Nemesis
See also: Nemesis (hypothetical star)

Believers in Planet X/Nibiru have often confused it with Nemesis,[80] a hypothetical star first proposed by physicist Richard A. Muller. In 1984, Muller postulated that mass extinctions were not random, but appeared to occur in the fossil record with a loose periodicity that ranged from 26 to 34 million years. He attributed this supposed pattern to a heretofore undetected companion to the Sun, either a dim red dwarf or a brown dwarf, lying in an elliptical, 26-million-year orbit. This object, which he named Nemesis, would, once every 26 million years, pass through the Oort cloud, the shell of over a trillion icy objects believed to be the source of long-period comets that orbit at thousands of times Pluto's distance from the Sun. Nemesis's gravity would then disturb the comets' orbits and send them into the inner Solar System, causing the Earth to be bombarded. However, to date no direct evidence of Nemesis has been found.[81] Though the idea of Nemesis appears similar to the Nibiru cataclysm, they are, in fact, very different, as Nemesis, if it existed, would have an orbital period thousands of times longer, and would never come near Earth itself.[80]
Sedna or Eris
See also: Eris (dwarf planet) and 90377 Sedna

Other people also confuse Nibiru with Sedna (90377 Sedna) or Eris (136199 Eris), trans-Neptunian objects discovered by Mike Brown in 2003 and 2005 respectively.[82][83] However, despite having been described as a "tenth planet" in an early NASA press release,[84] Eris (then known only as 2003 UB313) is now classified as a dwarf planet. Only slightly more massive than Pluto,[85] Eris has a well-determined orbit that never takes it closer to the Earth than 5.5 billion km.[86] Sedna is slightly smaller than Pluto,[87] and never comes closer to Earth than 11.4 billion km.[88] Mike Brown believes the confusion results from both the real Sedna and the imaginary Nibiru having extremely elliptical orbits.[82]
Tyche
See also: Tyche (hypothetical planet)

Others have tied it to Tyche,[89] the name proposed by John Matese and Daniel Whitmire of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette for an object they believe to be influencing the orbits of comets in the Oort cloud.[90] In February, 2011, Whitmire and his colleagues took their hypothesis to the public in an article in The Independent, in which they named the object "Tyche" and claimed that evidence for its existence would be found once data from the WISE infrared telescope was collated, leading to a spike in calls to astronomers.[91][92] The name, after the "good sister" of the Greek goddess Nemesis, was chosen to distinguish it from the similar Nemesis hypothesis as, unlike Nemesis, Matese and Whitmire do not believe that their object poses a threat to Earth.[93] Also, this object, if it exists, would, like Nemesis, have an orbit hundreds of times longer than that proposed for Nibiru, and never come near the inner Solar System.[89] In March 2014, NASA announced that the WISE survey had ruled out the existence of Tyche as its proponents had defined it.[94]
Comet Elenin
See also: Comet Elenin

Some associated Nibiru with Comet Elenin,[95] a long-period comet discovered by Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin on December 10, 2010.[96] On October 16, 2011, Elenin made its closest approach to the Earth at a distance of 0.2338 AU (34,980,000 km; 21,730,000 mi),[97][98] which is slightly closer than the planet Venus.[99] Nevertheless, in the leadup to its closest approach, claims spread on conspiracy websites concluded that it was on a collision course, that it was as large as Jupiter or even a brown dwarf, and even that the name of the discoverer, Leonid Elenin, was in fact code for ELE, or an Extinction Level Event.[95]

Although the sizes of comets are difficult to determine without close observation, Comet Elenin is likely to be less than 10 km in diameter.[100] Elenin himself estimates that the comet nucleus is roughly 3–4 km in diameter.[101] This would make it millions of times smaller than the supposed Nibiru. Comet hysteria is not uncommon.[102] Attempts have been made to correlate Elenin's alignments with the 2011 Japan earthquake, the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, and 2010 Chile earthquake; however, even discounting Elenin's tiny size, earthquakes are driven by forces within the earth, and cannot be triggered by the passage of nearby objects.[103] In 2011, Leonid Elenin ran a simulation on his blog in which he increased the mass of the comet to that of a brown dwarf (0.05 solar masses). He demonstrated that its gravity would have caused noticeable changes in the orbit of Saturn years before its arrival in the inner Solar System.[104]

In August, 2011, Comet Elenin began to disintegrate,[105][106] and by the time of its closest approach in October 2011 the comet was undetected even by large ground-based telescopes.[107]
Comet ISON
See also: Comet Ison
cloudy, black and white images of three lights in a triangular formation
A composite image of Comet ISON,[108] which generated a number of UFO claims

On 21 September 2012, Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok, using the International Scientific Optical Network of telescopes (ISON), discovered the comet C/2012 S1, known as "Comet ISON".[109] Its orbit was expected to take it within 0.429 AU (64,200,000 km; 39,900,000 mi) of Earth on 26 December 2013.[110] Nonetheless, believers tied it to the Nibiru cataclysm, claiming it would hit the Earth on that date, or that it would fragment and pieces of it would hit the Earth.[22] Images of the "fragments" of the comet circulating on the Internet were shown to be camera artifacts.[22] On April 30, 2013, the Hubble Space Telescope took three pictures of the comet over the course of 12 hours, which were published as a composite in Hubble's archives.[111] This led to speculation on conspiracy sites that the comet had split into 3 pieces, or even that it was a UFO.[112] After ISON passed perihelion on 28 November, it rapidly began to fade, leaving many to suspect that it had been destroyed as it passed the Sun. While a dim remnant did eventually return round the Sun, it was generally accepted to be a cloud of dust, rather than a solid object.[113] On 2 December 2013, the CIOC (NASA Comet ISON Observing Campaign) officially announced that Comet ISON had fully disintegrated.[114][115] The Hubble Space Telescope failed to detect fragments of ISON on 18 December 2013.[116] On 8 May 2014, a detailed examination of the comet disintegration was published, suggesting that the comet fully disintegrated hours before perihelion.[108]
Planet Nine
A blue planet lies in shadow, set against the Milky Way with a dim sun in the distance
Artist's impression of the hypothetical Planet Nine as an ice giant eclipsing the central Milky Way, with the Sun in the distance.[117] Neptune's orbit is shown as a small ellipse around the Sun. (See labeled version.)
Main article: Planet Nine

In March 2014, astronomers Chad Trujillo and Scott Sheppard published a paper in Nature arguing that the apparent clustering of the arguments of perihelion of distant trans-Neptunian objects suggested the existence of a large trans-Neptunian planet.[118] On January 20, 2016, Mike Brown and Konstantin Batygin announced that they had corroborated Trujillo and Sheppard's findings, and that they believed the planet, which they dubbed "Planet Nine", would have a mass roughly ten times that of the Earth, and a semimajor axis of approximately 400–1500 AU (60–225 billion km).[119] Believers in Nibiru and the Nibiru cataclysm immediately argued that this constituted evidence for their claims. However, astronomers pointed out that this planet, if it exists, would have a perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) of roughly 200 AU, or 30 billion km.[120]

In March 2016, believers in the Nibiru cataclysm began to suggest that the month marked the true date for Nibiru's arrival and the destruction of Earth.[121] That same month, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society published a paper by Daniel Whitmire (who had proposed the existence of Tyche) in which he reconsidered a modified version of the Nemesis model he had first proposed in 1985[122] in light of recent speculations concerning the possibility of a trans-Neptunian planet.[123] The hypothesis argues that an object far closer to the Sun than Nemesis could have a similar effect if its orbit precessed at a rate thousands of times slower than its actual speed, which would mean it might only interact with the Kuiper belt every 27 million years, potentially sending comets into the inner Solar System and triggering mass extinctions.[122] However, the paper had been initially published online in November 2015, before Brown and Batygin went public with Planet Nine,[123] and concerns a different object far closer to the Sun (100 AU vs. ~600 AU); Planet Nine, if it exists, is too far away, says Brown, to have such an effect on the Kuiper belt.[124] Nonetheless, an article in the British tabloid The Sun (later republished in the New York Post)[125] conflated the three ideas of Nibiru, Planet Nine, and Whitmire's planet to suggest that not only had Planet Nine been found, but that it would collide with Earth at the end of April,[126] which resulted in Batygin receiving a spike in panicked calls.[127]
2016 WF9
See also: 2016 WF9

On November 27, 2016, NASA's NEOWISE project identified 2016 WF9, an Apollo-class near-Earth asteroid that they calculated would pass by Earth on 25 February 2017 at a distance of 0.3407 AU (50,970,000 km; 31,670,000 mi).[128][129] On 25 January 2017, the British tabloids, initially the Daily Mail, ran a story claiming that "Self-proclaimed Russian astronomer Dr Dyomin Damir Zakharovich"[130] (for whose existence the Daily Mail could not vouch) said that WF9 was in fact a spun off piece of the Nibiru system that was on course to collide with Earth.[130]
Public reaction
David Morrison, seen from the side, speaking into a microphone
Astronomer David Morrison has repeatedly debunked the claims of Nibiru cataclysm supporters.[131][38]

The impact of the public fear of the Nibiru cataclysm has been especially felt by professional astronomers. In 2008, Mike Brown said that Nibiru was the most common pseudoscientific topic he was asked about.[53]

Before his retirement after 2012, David Morrison, director of the SETI Institute, CSI Fellow and Senior Scientist at NASA's Astrobiology Institute at Ames Research Center, said he received 20 to 25 emails a week about the impending arrival of Nibiru: some frightened, others angry and naming him as part of the conspiracy to keep the truth of the impending apocalypse from the public, and still others asking whether or not they should kill themselves, their children or their pets.[56][131] Half of these emails were from outside the U.S.[21] "Planetary scientists are being driven to distraction by Nibiru," notes science writer Govert Schilling, "And it is not surprising; you devote so much time, energy and creativity to fascinating scientific research, and find yourself on the tracks of the most amazing and interesting things, and all the public at large is concerned about is some crackpot theory about clay tablets, god-astronauts and a planet that doesn't exist."[5] In a similar vein, Professor Brian Cox Tweeted in 2012 that, "If anyone else asks me about 'Nibiru' the imaginary bullshit planet I will slap them around their irrational heads with Newton's Principia."[132]

NASA frequently has to evaluate whether or not to respond to such claims, and the value of reassuring the public is outweighed by the risk of granting further exposure to a completely non-scientific idea.[52] Prior to the 2012 date, Morrison stated that he hoped that the non-arrival of Nibiru could serve as a teaching moment for the public, instructing them on "rational thought and baloney detection", but doubted that would happen.[56] During the 2017 revival, Morrison stated that the Nibiru phenomenon "keeps popping up over and over" despite his original assumption that it would be short-lived.[133]

Morrison noted in a lecture recorded on FORA.tv that there was a huge disconnect between the large number of people on the Internet who believed in Nibiru's arrival and the majority of scientists who have never heard of it. To date he is the only major NASA scientist to speak out regularly against the Nibiru phenomenon.[131]
Cultural influence

A viral marketing campaign for Sony Pictures' 2009 film 2012, directed by Roland Emmerich, which depicts the end of the world in the year 2012, featured a supposed warning from the "Institute for Human Continuity" that listed the arrival of Planet X as one of its doomsday scenarios.[134] Mike Brown attributed a spike in concerned emails and phone calls he received from the public to this site.[82] Danish filmmaker Lars von Trier drew inspiration from Nibiru for his 2011 apocalyptic film Melancholia.[135] A planet named "Nibiru" made a cameo appearance in the 2013 film Star Trek Into Darkness, which was connected to the cataclysm in the press.[136]

WASHINGTON - Although anthrax and other biological weapons seem like 21st-century threats, they have been tools of terror for ages.
 
Ancient armies, for instance, tainted water supplies of entire cities with herbs and fungus that gave people horrible diarrhea and hallucinations. One germ-warfare assault in the 1300s apparently got out of hand, triggering an epidemic that ravaged the population of Europe.
 
British troops in the French and Indian War launched a stealth smallpox attack on Indians. During World War I, German agents ran an anthrax factory in Washington, D.C. World War II anthrax bombs left a whole island uninhabitable for almost 50 years.
 
"The earliest reference to anthrax is found in the Fifth Plague," said Dr. Philip Brachman, an anthrax expert at Emory University in Atlanta.
 
It took 10 calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to finally convince an obstinate pharaoh to liberate the ancient Hebrews, according to the Bible. The plagues probably date to about 1300 B.C. They ranged from Nile River water turned blood-red and undrinkable to the one-night destruction of all the first-born of Egypt.
 
The Fifth Plague (Exodus 9:3) was an infectious disease that killed all the cattle in Egypt, while sparing the Hebrews' cattle. Brachman and other experts think the biblical account actually refers to a natural epidemic of anthrax. Such epidemics periodically decimated domestic animals in the ancient Middle East. The anthrax might have spared the Israelites because their sheep would have been grazing on poorer pastures where infections don't take hold as well.
 
Domestic animals (and wild animals such as deer and bison) get anthrax by eating spores of the bacteria while grazing on contaminated land, or from eating contaminated feed.
 
Animal anthrax still is an important problem in developing countries, especially in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. Humans can catch the disease from contact with infected animals, their meat, hide or hair.
 
Medical historians see anthrax's fingerprints in manuscripts from the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Hindus in India, which contain descriptions of animal and human anthrax.
 
They think history's most serious anthrax outbreak was "Black Bane," a terrible epidemic that swept Europe in the 1600s. It killed at least 60,000 people and many more domestic and wild animals.
 
People called it "Black Bane" because many cases involved the cutaneous, or skin, form of anthrax, which involves a blackish sore. Anthrax actually was named from a Greek word that refers to coal and charcoal.
 
Cutaneous anthrax can be quickly cured today with Cipro, penicillin, doxycycline or other antibiotics. Like other infections in the pre-antibiotic era, however, it often killed.
 
Brachman said that epidemics of anthrax were common in Europe during the 1700s and 1800s, with up to 100,000 cases of human anthrax annually.
 
Medicine's first major advance against anthrax occurred in Germany as the United States celebrated its 100th birthday.
 
A physician named Robert Koch discovered how to grow bacteria on gelatin-like material in glass laboratory dishes, and rules to prove that specific bacteria caused specific diseases. In 1876, Koch identified the anthrax bacteria. It led to development of a vaccine that was first used to immunize livestock in 1880, and later humans.
 
Other biological agents have roots as almost as ancient as anthrax.
 
Some of the first recorded biological terror attacks occurred in the 6th century B.C.
 
The ancient Assyrians (whose civilization began around 2400 B.C. in modern Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq) poisoned enemy wells with ergot, a fungus that can grow on wheat, rye and other grains. It produces LSD-like chemicals that cause hallucinations and other symptoms.
 
In another 6th-century biological assault, the ancient Greeks, besieging a city called Krissa, poisoned its water supply with the herb hellebore. It causes violent diarrhea.
 
During their sieges, ancient Roman soldiers threw decaying human corpses and carcasses of dead animals into their enemies' water supplies, and catapulted them over the walls of enemy towns.
 
A Tartar army in 1346 launched a biological assault that may have gotten out of control - big time.
 
While besieging a city in modern-day Crimea, soldiers hurled corpses of bubonic plague victims over city walls. Fleas from the corpses infested people and rats in the city. Plague spread as people and rats escaped and fled.
 
Some experts believe it triggered the great epidemic of bubonic plague -the "Black Death" -that swept Europe, killing 25 million people.
 
In 1797, Napoleon tried to infect residents of a besieged city in Italy with malaria.
 
During the French and Indian War, the British suspected American Indians of siding with the French. In an "act of good will," the British gave the Indians nice, warm blankets -straight from the beds of smallpox victims.
 
The resulting epidemic killed hundreds of Indians.
 
Dr. Anton Dilger, an agent of the Imperial German Government during World War I, grew anthrax and other bacteria in a corner of his Washington home. His henchmen on the docks in Baltimore used the anthrax to infect 3,000 horses and mules destined for the Allied forces in Europe. Many of the animals died, and hundreds of soldiers on the Western Front in Europe were infected.
 
In 1937, Japan began a biological warfare program that included anthrax, and later tested anthrax weapons in China. During World War II, Japan spread fleas infected with bubonic plague in a dozen Chinese cities.
 
The United States, Great Britain and other countries developed anthrax weapons during World War II. The British military in 1942 began testing "anthrax bombs" on Gruinard Island, a 500-acre dot of land off the northwestern coast of Scotland. After the war, the project was abandoned.
 
However, the Gruinard experiments established the terrible environmental consequences of using anthrax as a weapon of mass destruction.
 
British scientists thought the anthrax spores would quickly die or blow away into the ocean. But the spores lived on. Huge numbers remained infectious year after year. Finally, in 1986, after critics labeled Gruinard "Anthrax Island," the British government decided to clean up the mess.
 
Workers built an irrigation system over the entire test range. It saturated the ground with 280 tons of formaldehyde -"embalming fluid" -diluted in 2,000 tons of seawater. The fluid flowed 24 hours a day for more than a year. Gruinard finally was declared decontaminated in 1990. It remains uninhabited today.
 
Modern biological warfare programs have resulted in environmental contamination as well. An accident in 1979 at a Soviet biological warfare plant in Sverdlovsk (Ekaterinburg), released anthrax that killed at least 68 people who lived downwind.
 
A 1972 treaty, ratified by 143 countries, banned production, deployment, possession and use of biological weapons. Analysts think that a dozen countries still may have clandestine biological weapons programs, including Iraq.
 www.rotten.com/library/history/war//biological-weapons/ http://military.wikia.com/wiki/History_of_biological_warfare
Iraq is believed to have hidden stockpiles of weapons-grade anthrax and other biological agents, plus artillery shells and other weapons to deliver the germs.
In Search Of The Dark Star the Dogon AFRICAN TRIBE sirius planet star x(22:35)
0 views http://memory-beta.wikia.com/wiki/Dogon http://memory-beta.wikia.com/wiki/Sirius http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sirius_Mystery
Added by Queen Armada http://marvel.wikia.com/Venom_Symbiote http://marvel.wikia.com/Venom_%28Symbiote%29_%28Earth-616%29 http://de.spiderman.wikia.com/wiki/Venom http://spiderman.wikia.com/wiki/Venom_%28Symbiote%29_%28Earth-616%29 http://thedailybugle.wikia.com/wiki/Symbiote http://residentevil.wikia.com/U-8 http://residentevil.wikia.com/U-8
develope new warriors from war technology.Did they adapt to robotech and eat the flower of life to make a robotech trooper.Under depths of the ocean in Abyss.Leviathon is robotech.Infiltration many stories big creature to mutate gel ameoba through humanoid dimension corridors reform as a trooper with fangs armor peircing.Laser pores from Flower of Life in hands of Vampire.Military.Force fields of 3000 years ago and abilities time traveling 100 million years to their hive.Fangs are armor peircing. http://medalofhonor.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/The_Real_WW3_Countries http://acecombat.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:Queen_Armada/The_Real_WW3_Countries

The people of the Dark Star Cluster Empire (暗黒星団帝国 Ankoku Seidan Teikoku) live on the metal planet Dezarium in the Dark Star Cluster, a double-galaxy 200,000 light years from Earth. Although humanoid, they are in fact bionic, having given up the pleasures of human flesh in exchange for longevity. They appear in the movies Yamato: The New Voyage and Be Forever, Yamato.They are alien race of machines.They are Terminator Alien race.Source of Terminators and HK.Skynet is from Dark Nebula Empire. Dark Star Empire are a war monger adn outer space alien empire.They are very advanced in HK Terminator technology.They have war vessels and mechas as most empires.Attack craft.They have many types of machines that are in Dark Star and that is Terminator.They are Terminator's alien race. http://www.goingfaster.com/term2029/
■Daeder (デーダー Dēdā?)
■Moelders (メルダーズ Merudāzu?)
■2nd Lt. Alphon (アルフォン少尉 Arufon shōi?)
■Great Emperor Skulldart (聖総統スカルダート Seisōtō Sukarudāto?)
■Sada (サーダ Sāda?) ■Japanese voice artist: Yumi Nakatani

■Kazan (カザン Kazan?) ■Japanese voice artist: Mugihito

■Commodore Grotus (グロータス准将 Gurōtasu junshō?): Commander of the Gorba fleet. ■Japanese voice artist: Banjō Ginga

The name or term "Terminator" refers to more than one character or idea. For a list of other meanings, see Terminator (disambiguation).

[1]Terminators.Added by OzzelA Terminator is a type of Hunter-Killer designed to terminate other life forms. Terminators are built by an artificially intelligent computer called Skynet, in order to wipe out the remains of humanity after the Judgment Day.

Contents
[show]

ContentsEdit

[hide] ***1 Development of the Terminators
2 Classification 2.1 Non-Humanoid Hunter Killer
2.2 Humanoid Hunter Killer 2.2.1 Infiltrators

3 Notes
4 Behind the Scenes 4.1 Inspirations
4.2 Nomenclature 4.2.1 Known appellations
4.2.2 Nomenclature table

5 References
6 External links

Development of the TerminatorsEditEdit

How the original Terminators were built is unknown, at least in one timeline (Terminator 2: Judgment Day), Cyberdyne Systems was able to reverse-engineer and develop robots from the scavenged hand and CPU of the destroyed T-800 in 1984.[1] Cyberdyne System had created the Series 70 Terminator to impress investors and people with military interests to finance them to improve robot technology.

Terminators of Cyberdyne Systems models are created by Skynet after the War against the Machines started. Terminator Salvation

In an altered timeline (Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines) created by the destruction of Cyberdyne[2], Terminators were created by the Cyber Research Systems division of the United States Air Force to replace soldiers on the battlefield prior to the Judgment Day, starting with the Series 1.

ClassificationEditEdit
■■See also: Series

Non-Humanoid Hunter KillerEditEdit
■■■Series 1
A large battle unit armed with twin-linked miniguns. ■T-7T
■T-1000000
A large poly-mimetic Terminator created to guard the Skynet Core. ■Moto-Terminator

Humanoid Hunter KillerEditEdit
■■Main article: Humanoid Hunter Killer

The Humanoid Hunter Killer is an android developed and intended to be similar to a human endoskeleton in look and function.
■■■Series 20
■Series 70
A tall and basic Terminator model designed as a basic foot soldier ■Series 400
A multi-purpose unit designed for close-quarters combat. ■Series 500
The first true Terminator featured an armored battle chassis that made it more durable than the T-400. ■T-Infinity
A multi-phasic machine armed with multiple onboard weaponry and a TDE device.

InfiltratorsEditEdit
■■Main article: Infiltrator

The Infiltrator is a type of the Humanoid Hunter Killer that is built to look exactly like humans and used to infiltrate, seek out and kill human beings. The Infiltrator progresses from rubber skin, human flesh over its endoskeleton, to mimetic polyalloy able to mimic any person or object.
■■■Series 600
The first Infiltrator model that possesses a rubber skin sheath. ■Series 700
The first generation of the T-800. ■Series 800
A breakthrough Terminator that uses living tissue covering for superior infiltration. ■Series 8xx
Various variants of the Series 800 Terminator

■Series 900
A hyper-alloy armored Terminator designed to eliminate other machines. ■Series 950
An advanced model of the Series 900 Terminator.

■Series 1000
A poly-mimetic Terminator capable of altering its form and appearance. ■Series X
A hyper-advanced endoskeleton that possesses mimetic polyalloy and on board weaponry. ■Unknown series, Class TOK715
■TS-300 (created by MIR)
A ceramic Terminator designed to replace specific individuals.

NotesEditEdit
■■■Due to the changing timelines, caused by the time travel, the future is changing and the creation date of the Terminators is changing as well.
■There are two notable examples of a predestination paradox causality loop in The Terminator if one does not assume the existence of an "unaltered original" timeline. ■If the original Terminator wasn't destroyed in the Cyberdyne building, Skynet, Judgment Day, the war and the three billion deaths may never have occurred.
■If the Tech-Com army and the Skynet army had never sent soldiers back in time, John Connor and Skynet may never have existed.

Behind the ScenesEditEdit

InspirationsEditEdit

James Cameron asserts that he came up with the concept of the Terminator characters on his own. However, several works of science fiction predating his film have similar concepts, including "Soldier", "Demon with a Glass Hand", "I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream", "Second Variety", "Jon's World", Cyborg, La Jetée, and Cyborg 2087.

NomenclatureEditEdit

In Terminator 2: Judgment Day DVD commentary, "Model" refer to the outer appearance, while "Series" refers to the endoskeleton common to many types.

The end credits of all three films list Arnold Schwarzenegger's character as simply the "Terminator". Later films credit the newer Terminators by their series numbers, such as "T-1000", "T-X", or "T-800".

Those being chased by a Terminator, will often simply call it the "Terminator" (as Reese does throughout the first film). If more than one type of Terminator is involved more specific names may be used; ranging from an official designation to a variety of nicknames. The most common seems to be to add "T-" to the beginning of the series number.

Known appellationsEditEdit
■■■T-###[3][4]
■T-### Terminator[5]
■T-### xxx Terminator[6]
■Terminator T-###[7]
■Series T-###[8]
■Series ###[9][10][11]
■Series ### Terminator[12]

1.1.1. Series[13][14]

■■■T-### Model [15]
■Model T-### [16]

Nomenclature tableEditEdit

Official Designation

Common Name †

Other Names ‡

Cyberdyne future (The Terminator, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, and T2 3-D: Battle Across Time)

Cyberdyne Systems Series 70[17]

T-70[18]

Cyberdyne Systems Series 600[17]

T-600[17]

■■■600 Series[13]

Cyberdyne Systems
Series 800 Model 101[17]

T-800[17][18][4]

■■■Cyberdyne Systems, Model 101[13][19]
■CSM-101 [20]
■Series 800[21]
■800 Series[14]

Cyberdyne Systems
Series 800 Model 101 Version 2.4###[9]

Cyberdyne Systems Series 1000 [17]

T-1000 [22]

■■■1000 Series[14]

Cyberdyne Systems ???

T-Meg[23]

■■■T-1000000[18]

Cyber Research future (Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines)

Cyber Research Systems ??? #

T-1 [24]

■■■T-1 Ground Assault Vehicle[25]
■T1 Battlefield Robot, fully autonomous Ground Offensive System[26]
■T1 Proto Type[27]

Cyber Research Systems
Model 101 Series 850[25] (The T3 DVD Extras swap the order of Series & Model for all references, not just the new ones.)

T-850' [25]

■■■Series 850[25]
■T-101[19]
■Model 101[25]

Cyber Research Systems Model T-X[28]
(Series (if any) unspecified.)

T-X [24]

■■■Terminatrix [29]
■CRS Model T-X[28]
■Model T-X [25]

Third future (Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles)

(company unknown) Series 600 [17]

T-600[17]

■■■T-600 models [15]

(company unknown) Series 888 [17]
(Model numbers have not yet been mentioned.)

T-888[30][31]

■■■T triple eight[32]

Notes:
† The most common descriptive name used in-universe to refer to the type in general. ‡ Short names, and nicknames used rarely. etc. # The T3 DVD extras imply that the "T1" is actually a Hunter Killer Tank prototype, not the first "Terminator" for infiltration usage (I.E. humanoid).

ReferencesEditEdit
■■1.↑ This was an essential plot point in the sequel, even though it was a deleted scene.
2.↑ The event in Terminator 2: Judgment Day
3.↑ Since Terminator 2: Judgment Day: T-1000 in Terminator 2: Judgment Day; T-Meg in Terminator 2: Judgment Day DVD; T-X in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines; T-888 in Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles; T-Infinity in Terminator: Revolution.
4.↑ 4.0 4.1 The name "T-800" is used by Arnold Schwarzenegger in the DVD commentary for the film Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines.
5.↑ Merchandise such as "T-850 Terminator" or "T-X Terminatrix".
6.↑ "T-Infinity Temporal Terminator" in Terminator: Revolution.
7.↑ T-800's line "Terminator T-1000" in Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
8.↑ "Terminator, Series T-600" in the game The Terminator: Future Shock
9.↑ 9.0 9.1 The HUD of the T-800 identifies it more specifically as a "Cyberdyne Systems Series 800 Model 101 Version 2.4" in Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
10.↑ The name "Series 800" is flashed briefly in schematics used as DVD extras for Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
11.↑ The DVD extras of Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines identify the T-850 as an "Series 850 Model 101", and the older Terminator as an "Series 800 Model 101".
12.↑ The script of Terminator 2: Judgment Day uses "the endoskeleton of a Series 800 Terminator".
13.↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Kyle Reese's line "the 600 Series" from the film The Terminator.
14.↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 James Cameron's line "The 800 Series … the 1000 Series" in commentary of Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
15.↑ 15.0 15.1 Cameron's line "T-600 models" in Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles episode "Heavy Metal".
16.↑ "Model T-X" in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines DVD and Terminator 3: The Redemption
17.↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Extrapolation based on usage for other Terminator types as shown in the Nomenclature table.
18.↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Terminator 2: 3-D Special Site
19.↑ 19.0 19.1 Used by itself in dialog from the film The Terminator.
20.↑ Reflected on the Terminator's sunglasses in the poster for The Terminator, and flashed briefly in schematics used as DVD extras for Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
21.↑ Flashed briefly in schematics used as DVD extras for Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
22.↑ Used throughout the film Terminator 2: Judgment Day.
23.↑ Used by James Cameron in the Making of T2 3-D: Battle Across Time featured in Terminator 2: Judgment Day DVD.
24.↑ 24.0 24.1 Used throughout the film Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines.
25.↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 Shown on screen in the special features from the Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines DVD
26.↑ Dialog from the "Sgt. Candy" scene featured in the Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines DVD
27.↑ Shown on screen in its HUD.
28.↑ 28.0 28.1 A scan from another Terminator display this in the game Terminator 3: The Redemption.
29.↑ Used by John Connor once in dialog from the film Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines
30.↑ Official episode summaries for the Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles
31.↑ Displayed in the HUD when identifying another Terminator in Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles episode "Heavy Metal".
32.↑ Used by Derek Reese in Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles episode "Queen's Gambit".

External linksEditEdit
■■■"T2 and Technology", an essay by chief technical consultant Larry Yeager

kusoCartoon_13787607741137_.jpg
Terminator Series

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Other

TS-300 - Class TOK715 - Dire Wolf - Moto-Terminator (Snowminator)

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Read moreEdit
■■■Snowminators are a type of Non-Humanoid Hunter Killer utilized by Skynet in 2018. The…

Snowminator
■■■[2] Series T1
■[3] T-7T

Category:
■■■Terminator series

Daeder (デーダー Dēdā?): commander of the flagship Pleiades. When the Gamilas fleet attacks the Black Nebula forces mining their homeworld and cause the planet's destruction, Daeder in turn attacks them and pins them down in the seas of Iscandar. When the Yamato attacks, he attempts to position his ship between the Earth vessel and Iscandar to discourage use of the Wave Motion Gun, but is destroyed when Iscandar moves to safety due to volcanic eruptions.
■■■Japanese voice artist: Kōsei Tomita
■He is named after Erich Raeder
Daeder (デーダー Dēdā?): commander of the flagship Pleiades. When the Gamilas fleet attacks the Black Nebula forces mining their homeworld and cause the planet's destruction, Daeder in turn attacks them and pins them down in the seas of Iscandar. When the Yamato attacks, he attempts to position his ship between the Earth vessel and Iscandar to discourage use of the Wave Motion Gun, but is destroyed when Iscandar moves to safety due to volcanic eruptions. ■Japanese voice artist: Kōsei Tomita
■He is named after Erich Raeder
Daeder (デーダー Dēdā?): commander of the flagship Pleiades. When the Gamilas fleet attacks the Black Nebula forces mining their homeworld and cause the planet's destruction, Daeder in turn attacks them and pins them down in the seas of Iscandar. When the Yamato attacks, he attempts to position his ship between the Earth vessel and Iscandar to discourage use of the Wave Motion Gun, but is destroyed when Iscandar moves to safety due to volcanic eruptions. ■Japanese voice artist: Kōsei Tomita
■He is named after Erich Raeder Great Emperor Skulldart (聖総統スカルダート Seisōtō Sukarudāto?): Leader of the Dark Star Cluster Empire.2405B669-DA4F-48C6-B18A-471F8A88090B.jpghttp://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Dragon_EmpirekusoCartoon_13787563282791_.jpg
Marduk are an enemy of the RDF.They are a race of beings that are alien to earth's universe. A'
http://www.super-nexus.com/marduk.htmmahttp://www.geocities.ws/mylenebowman/robotech-hist-mard.html http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Enemies http://www.syfy.com/battlestargalactica
http://starblazers.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Dark_Star_Empire http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Source_John_Connor
http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Dragon_Empire
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