A-7 Corsair
a7.jpgOriginUSATypesingle-seat tactical fighterMax Speed635kt / 691 mphMax Rangerange 3,669 km / 2,280 milesDimensionsspan 11.81 m / 38 ft 9 in
length 14.06 m / 46ft 1.5 in
height 4.90 m / 16ft 0.75 inWeightempty 8676 kg / 19,127 lb
max. take-off 19,051 kg /
42,000 lbPowerplantone Alison TF-41-A with 15,000lbs thrustArmamentone M-61A1 20mm six barrel gatling, with 1018 rounds; provision for more than 6804 kg (15,000 Ib) of disposable stores on eight external hardpointsOperators:Greece, Portugal, ThailandAircraft Overview:
Going by aesthetics, the A-7 Corsair II bears an uncanny resemblance to a drainage pipe with wings. However, the fact that A-7s can still be found serving today with various air forces, despite the technology demonstrators first flight in 1965, is proof that under the aircraft's bulky exterior lurks serious power. Allowing large loads of Air-to-Ground (AG) munitions to be delivered at high speeds, the A-7 Corsair II proved to be one of the most valuable striking tools US Navy (USN) carriers had at their disposal, attacking targets in a variety of theatres, from Vietnam to the 1991 Gulf War. A-7s succeeded Skyhawks and Intruders as carrier strike fighters until they themselves were replaced in USN service by McDonnell Douglas F/A-18s.
The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II is a carrier-capable subsonic light attack aircraft introduced to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk. The A-7 airframe design was based on the successful supersonic Vought F-8 Crusader. It was one of the first combat aircraft to feature a head-up display (HUD), an inertial navigation system (INS), and a turbofan engine.

The Corsair II initially entered service with the United States Navy during the Vietnam War. It was later adopted by the United States Air Force, including the Air National Guard, to replace the Douglas A-1 Skyraider, North American F-100 Super Sabre and Republic F-105 Thunderchief. The aircraft was also exported to Greece in the 1970s, and Portugal in the late 1980s.

a-7d_1_4.jpg

Contents
[hide] 1 Design and development
2 Operational history 2.1 Southeast Asia carrier use
2.2 United States Air Force A-7D
2.3 A-7E Development
2.4 Post-Vietnam era 2.4.1 Air National Guard
2.4.2 Grenada and Lebanon
2.4.3 Libya
2.4.4 Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm
2.4.5 Use in F-117 development

2.5 Training and retirement

3 Variants
4 Operators
5 Aircraft on display 5.1 A-7A
5.2 A-7B
5.3 A-7D
5.4 A-7E
5.5 A-7P
5.6 Others

6 Specifications (A-7E)
7 See also
8 References 8.1 Notes
8.2 Citations
8.3 Bibliography

9 External links

[edit] Design and development

In 1962, the United States Navy began preliminary work on VAX (Heavier-than-air, Attack, Experimental), a replacement for the A-4 Skyhawk with greater range and payload. A particular emphasis was placed on accurate delivery of weapons to reduce the cost per target. The requirements were finalized in 1963, announcing the VAL (Heavier-than-air, Attack, Light) competition.[1]

0445-03-2-8.jpg

The first A-7 mock-up in 1964.
To minimize costs, all proposals had to be based on existing designs. Vought, Douglas Aircraft, Grumman and North American Aviation responded. The Vought proposal was based on the successful Vought F-8 Crusader fighter, having a similar configuration, but shorter and more stubby, with a rounded nose. It was selected as the winner on 11 February 1964, and on 19 March the company received a contract for the initial batch of aircraft, designated A-7.[1] In 1965, the aircraft received the popular name Corsair II, after Vought's highly successful Vought F4U Corsair of World War II.[citation needed] (There was also a Vought O2U Corsair biplane scout and observation aircraft in 1920s.)

Compared to the F-8 fighter, the A-7 had a shorter, broader fuselage. The wing had a longer span, and the unique variable incidence wing of the F-8 was omitted. To achieve the required range, the A-7 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-6 turbofan producing 11,345 lbf (50.5 kN) of thrust,[1] the same innovative combat turbofan produced for the F-111 and early F-14 Tomcats, but without the afterburners needed for supersonic speeds.

The aircraft was fitted with an AN/APQ-116 radar, later followed by the AN/APQ-126, which was integrated into the ILAAS digital navigation system. The radar also fed a digital weapons computer which made possible accurate delivery of bombs from a greater stand-off distance, greatly improving survivability compared with faster platforms such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. It was the first U.S. aircraft to have a modern head-up display, (made by Marconi-Elliott),[2] now a standard instrument, which displayed information such as dive angle, airspeed, altitude, drift and aiming reticle. The integrated navigation system allowed for another innovation – the projected map display system (PMDS) which accurately showed aircraft position on two different map scales.[citation needed]

VA-147 was the first operational U.S. Navy A-7 squadron, in 1967.
The A-7 had a fast and smooth development. The YA-7A made its first flight on 27 September 1965,[3] and began to enter Navy squadron service late in 1966. The first Navy A-7 squadrons reached operational status on 1 February 1967, and began combat operations over Vietnam in December of that year.[4]

The A-7 offered a plethora of leading-edge avionics compared to contemporary aircraft. This included data link capabilities that, among other features, provided fully "hands-off" carrier landing capability when used in conjunction with its approach power compensator (APC) or auto throttle. Other notable and highly advanced equipment was a projected map display located just below the radar scope. The map display was slaved to the inertial navigation system and provided a high-resolution map image of the aircraft's position superimposed over TPC/JNC charts. Moreover, when slaved to the all-axis auto pilot, the inertial navigation system could fly the aircraft "hands off" to up to nine individual way points. Typical inertial drift was minimal for newly manufactured models and the inertial measurement system accepted fly over, radar, and TACAN updates.[5]

[edit] Operational history

Initial operational basing/homeporting for U.S. Navy A-7 squadrons was at NAS Cecil Field, Florida for Atlantic Fleet units and NAS Lemoore, California for Pacific Fleet units. This was in keeping with the role of these bases in already hosting the A-4 Skyhawk attack squadrons that would eventually transition to the A-7.

A7Dcutaway.png

Lynn Garrison in a F4U-7 leads A-7 Corsair IIs of VA-147, over NAS Lemoore, CA on 7 July 1967 prior to first deployment Vietnam on USS Ranger. The A-7A "NE-300" is the aircraft of the Air Group Commander (CAG) of Attack Carrier Air Wing 2 (CVW-2).
From 1967 – 1971 a total of 27 Navy squadrons took delivery of four different A-7A/B/C/E models. The Vought plant in Dallas, TX employed up to 35,000 workers turned out one aircraft a day for several years to support the Navy carrier-based needs for Vietnam and SE Asia and commitments to NATO in Europe. In 1974, when the USS Midway (CV 41) became the first Forward Deployed Naval Force (FDNF) aircraft carrier to be homeported in Yokosuka, Japan, two A-7B squadrons assigned to Carrier Air Wing FIVE (CVW-5) were concurrently homeported at NAF Atsugi, Japan. In 1978, these squadrons (VA-93 and VA-56) finally transitioned to the much more advanced A-7E model. Six Naval Reserve squadrons would also eventually transition to the A-7, operating from NAS Jacksonville, Florida; NAS Atlanta/Dobbins ARB, Georgia; NAS New Orleans, Louisiana; NAS Alameda, California and NAS Point Mugu, California. An additional active duty squadron stood up in the 1980s, Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 34 (VAQ-34) at NAS Point Mugu, which would operate twin-seat TA-7C and EA-7L aircraft with both a pilot and a naval flight officer in an adversary electronic warfare role.[6]

Pilots of the early A-7s lauded the aircraft for general ease of flying (with the exceptions of poor stability on cross-wind landings and miserable stopping performance on wet runways with an inoperative anti-skid braking system) and excellent forward visibility but noted a lack of engine thrust. This was addressed with A-7B and more thoroughly with A-7D/E. The turbofan engine provided a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency compared with earlier turbojets – the A-7D was said to have specific fuel consumption one sixth that of an F-100 Super Sabre at equivalent thrust. An A-7D carrying 12 x 500 lb (227 kg) bombs at 480 mph (775 km/h) at 33,000 ft (10,000 m) used only 3,350 lb (1,500 kg) of fuel per hour. Typical fuel consumption at mission retrograde during aircraft carrier recovery was approximately 30 pounds per minute compared to 100+ pounds per minute for the Phantom F-4J/N series.[7] The A-7 Corsair II was tagged with the nickname "SLUF" ("Short Little Ugly Fucker") by pilots.[8]

[edit] Southeast Asia carrier use

A-7Bs of CVW-16 on the USS Ticonderoga in 1968
In Vietnam, the hot, humid air robbed even the upgraded A-7D and A-7E of power. Takeoff rolls were lengthy, and fully armed aircraft struggled to reach 800 km/h. For A-7A aircraft, high density altitude and maximum weight runway takeoffs often necessitated a "low transition", where the aircraft was intentionally held in "ground effect" a few feet off the runway during gear retraction, and as much as a 10-mile (16 km) departure at treetop altitude before reaching a safe flap retraction speed. (Note: the A-7A wing flap systems were either fully extended or fully retracted. The A-7A flap handle did not have the microswitch feature of later models that permitted the flaps to be slowly raised by several degrees per tap of the flap handle as airspeed slowly increased during max-weight takeoffs.)[9][10]

Carrier catapult launches at maximum weight under these performance-robbing conditions were not significantly better and were characterized by the aircraft decelerating by as much as 20 knots (37 km/h) immediately after launch. As a result, A-7A units operated their aircraft four thousand pounds below the max-rated takeoff weight for the A-7E.[11][12]

In a sortie against the Thanh Hoa bridge, four A-7Cs from VA-82 successfully delivered 8,000 lbs of high explosives with two planes carrying two 2,000 lb (910 kg) Walleyes, while two others also carried 2,000 lbs in Mk 84 GP bombs. In a simultaneous attack, the center piling on the bridge's west side was hit and broke the span in half. After this, the Thanh Hoa bridge was considered permanently destroyed and removed from the target list. A total of 98 USN A-7 Corsairs were lost during the war.[13]

[edit] United States Air Force A-7D

YA-7D-1-CV AF Serial No. 67-14582, the first USAF YA-7D, 2 May 1968. Note the Navy-style refueling probe and the modified Navy BuNo used as its USAF tail number.
The U.S. Army was not permitted to operate fixed-wing combat aircraft, but it nevertheless required close support for its troops in the field in South Vietnam. To meet this need, the Army pressured the United States Air Force for a specialized subsonic close-support aircraft that would suit its needs better than the general-purpose supersonic aircraft that the USAF preferred.[14]

The Vought A-7 seemed to be a relatively quick and inexpensive way to satisfy this need. However, the USAF was initially reluctant to take on yet another Navy-designed aircraft, but Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was insistent, and on 5 November 1965, Secretary of the Air Force Harold Brown and USAF Chief of Staff General John McDonnell announced that they had decided to order a version of the Corsair II, designated A-7D, for the Tactical Air Command.[14]

The A-7D differed from the Navy's Corsair II in several ways. For one, the Air Force insisted on significantly more power for its Corsair II version, and they selected the Allison TF41-A-1 turbofan engine, which was a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce Spey. It offered a thrust of 14,500 pounds, over 2000 pounds greater than that of the TF30 that powered the Navy's Corsair IIs. Other changes included a heads-up display, a new avionics package, and an M61 rotary cannon in place of the two single-barreled 20-mm [[cannon|cannon]]]. Also included was a computerized navigation/weapons delivery system with AN/APQ-126 radar and a heads-up display.[15] [14]

Ling-Temco-Vought A-7D-7-CV Corsair IIs 70-0976, 70-0989 and 70-0970 of the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing over the skies of Southeast Asia. 976 and 989 were retired to AMARC in 1992, 970 is on permanent display at the Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
Two YA-7D prototypes were completed with TF30-P-6 engines, and the first of these flew on 6 April 1968. The first Spey-powered A-7D (67-14854) flew for the first time on 26 September 1968. The seventeenth production aircraft introduced a provision for boom flight refueling in place of the Navy's probe/drogue system, with the boom receptacle being on the top of the fuselage behind the cockpit and offset to port.[15][14]

The A-7D first entered service with in 1970 with the 57th Fighter Weapons Wing at Luke AFB Arizona, and with the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina was equipped with four squadrons of A-7Ds by 1972; the 355th TFW at Davis-Monthan AFB was equipped with four squadrons in 1972, and in 1973, the 23d TFW at England AFB, Louisiana was fully equipped with A-7Ds.[14]

The 354th TFW first deployed two squadrons of A-7Ds to Korat Royal Thai AFB, Thailand in September 1972 as part of Operation Cornet Dancer, The A-7Ds were quickly assigned the "Sandy mission" of providing air cover for Combat Search and Rescue missions of downed pilots. [16]

Taking over for Douglas A-1 Skyraiders (and adopting their call sign of "Sandy"), the A-7's higher speed was somewhat detrimental for escorting the helicopters but the aircraft's high endurance and durability were an asset and it performed admirably.[14]

On 18 November 1972, Major Colin A. Clarke led a successful CSAR mission near Thanh Hoa to rescue a downed F-105 Wild Weasel crew. The mission lasted a total of 8.8 hours during which Clarke and his wingman took a number of hits from 0.51 cal (12.7 mm) anti-aircraft fire. For his actions in coordinating the rescue, Clarke was awarded the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second-highest decoration for valor, and his A-7D (AF Serial No. 70-0970) was eventually placed on display on 31 January 1992 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.[16][17]

3d TFS A-7D-10-CV Corsair II 71-0309 Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, 1973 Retired to AMARC as AE0206 15 September 1991.
With the end of US involvement in South Vietnam, the 354th TFW (Deployed) at Korat began flying combat sorties in Cambodia to support the Lon Nol government in support of Khmer National Armed Forces against the Khmer Rouge. Rotational deployments began to Korat from the 355th TFW and 23d TFW, with pilots and support personnel beginning six-months deployment cycles. In March 1973, the 354th transferred a squadron of A-7Ds to the 388th TFW, the host wing at Korat RTAFB at the time, which re-established the 3d Tactical Fighter Squadron and created a permanent USAF A-7D presence in Southeast Asia. A-7Ds from both wings stationed at Korat engaged in combat operations in Cambodia until 15 July 1973 when an A-7D of the deployed 353d TFS/354th TFW carried out the last air support mission. In March 1974, the 354th TFW transferred several more aircraft to the 3d TFS prior to its return to Myrtle Beach AFB.

The USAF A-7D flew a total of 12,928 combat sorties during the war with only six losses[18] – the lowest of any U.S. fighter in the theater. The aircraft was second only to Boeing B-52 Stratofortress in the amount of ordnance dropped on Hanoi and dropped more bombs per sortie with greater accuracy than any other U.S. attack aircraft.[16]

[edit] A-7E Development

A VA-192 A-7E over Vietnam. This aircraft was lost on 2 November 1972.
The Navy was sufficiently impressed with the increased power offered by the A-7D Spey engine used by the Air Force, and decided to use this engine for its own version of the Corsair II. The designation A-7E was assigned, and this version was to succeed the A-7A in production. However, there were delays in the deliveries of the TF41-A-2 engine specified for the A-7E, so the first 67 aircraft of the order were delivered with the TF30-P-5 engine. These aircraft had all of the other improvements planned for the A-7E, including the improved avionics and the M61 rotary cannon, and were re-designated A-7C after delivery.[19]

The first Spey-powered A-7E flew for the first time on 9 March 1969. The A-7E differed from the USAF A-7D in retaining the probe-and-drogue midair refueling system of the earlier A-7A/B. It entered service in Southeast Asia in May 1970 with VA-146 and VA-147 aboard the USS America. The A-7E participated in numerous close-air support missions over both North and South Vietnam, the A-7E's state-of-the-art bombing and navigation system being particularly reliable and accurate. Most air wings operating A-4 Skyhawks and early A-7s were re-equipped with A-7Es. The A-7E participated in the mining of Haiphong harbor in 1972, and played a vital role in the Linebacker I and Linebacker II operations that led up to the formal end of the Vietnam war on 24 January 1973.[19]

On 15 May 1975, A-7E aircraft aboard the USS Coral Sea, in conjunction with A-7D aircraft assigned to the 3d TFS at Korat RTAFB, provided air cover in what is considered the last battle of the Vietnam war, the recovery of the SS Mayagüez after it was hijacked by Khmer Rouge gunboats. By the time Operation Mayaguez was over, three USAF CH-53 helicopters had been shot down, two airmen, 11 Marines and two Navy Corpsmen had been killed in action and a further three Marines were missing in action.[20]

[edit] Post-Vietnam era

[edit] Air National Guard

A-7 Corsair II aircraft of the Iowa (IA) and South Dakota (SD) Air National Guard flying near RAF Waddington, UK. These aircraft were deployed to the United Kingdom from 21 August through 12 September 1979 for NATO operation CORNET Stallion
With the pullout of the USAF from its Thailand bases in late 1975, the A-7Ds stationed at Korat initially went to Clark AB, Philippines. The 3d TFS transitioned from its Corsairs to the McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom II and remained at Clark. The A-7Ds were returned to the United States where they were reassigned to several Air National Guard squadrons.

With the end of the Vietnam War, the Air Force began to transfer its active-duty A-7D aircraft to Air National Guard units. The Corsairs had been in a sense, a forced acquisition by the Air Force in the late 1960s, and the inter-service rivalry of flying a Navy plane had led, beginning about 1970, to the development of its own Close Air Support aircraft.[21] In 1974, selection of the Republic Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II was made as the replacement of the A-7D.

However, Congressional decisions added additional funding to the DOD FY 1975 and FY 1976 budgets for the procurement of additional A-7Ds, primarily to keep the LTV production line in Dallas open and the workers employed in the wake of post-Vietnam DOD procurement reductions. As a result of these unplanned acquisitions, the Air Force assigned these new 1975 and 1976 built aircraft, along with new twin seat A-7Ks trainers in 1979 directly to the Air National Guard.[14] By 1981, when the 23d TFW sent their last A-7Ds to Tonopah Test Range Airport, Nevada for clandestine use in the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk development program, fifteen ANG squadrons were equipped with the A-7D Corsair II.

On 12 January 1981, in the 1981 Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport attack, 10 A-7Ds of the 198th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Puerto Rico Air National Guard were destroyed or damaged in a terrorist attack by the Boricua Popular Army at Muniz Air National Guard Base in the largest attack ever on American military station since the Vietnam War.[22] This terrorist attack was largely unreported due to the Iran hostage crisis at the time.

During the post-Vietnam era, Tactical Air Command gained Air National Guard frequently deployed their Corsairs on annual operational exercises. Frequent deployments were made to Howard AFB, Panama to provide CAS training with Army units in the Canal Zone as part of Operation Cornet Cove. Other Air National Guard deployments were made to NATO and USAFE bases in West Germany and Denmark as part of Cornet Cove exercises along with the USAREUR Reforger training exercises. In 1989, while deployed in Panama for a Coronet Cove deployment, Ohio Air National Guard 180th Tactical Fighter Group A-7Ds were employed during Operation Just Cause.

[edit] Grenada and Lebanon

A-7Es on the USS Independence (CV 62) in 1983
Navy A-7E squadrons VA-15 and VA-87, from the USS Independence, provided close air support during the Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, in October 1983.[23]

Navy A-7s also provided air support during the U.S. mission in Lebanon in 1983. Along with an Grumman A-6 Intruder, an A-7 was shot down by Syrian surface-to-air missiles (SAM) on 4 December 1983.[23] Both the pilot of the A-6, Lt. Mark Lange, and his bombardier/navigator, Lt. Robert Goodman, ejected, but Lange suffered wounds in a late ejection and died. Goodman was also wounded, but survived capture and was later turned over to the U.S. on 4 January of the following year. The A-7 pilot, Commander Edward Andrews, managed to guide his failing Corsair over coastal waters before ejecting; he was rescued by a Lebanese fishing boat and safely returned to the U.S. Marines.[24]

[edit] Libya

A-7E of VA-72 on USS America off Libya in April 1986.
On 24 March 1986, during the Gulf of Sidra dispute with Libya, Libyan air defense operators fired SA-5 missiles at two Fighter Squadron 102 (VF-102) F-14s from USS America that were orbiting in international air space on a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) station. A-7s operating from Saratoga responded by firing the first AGM-88 HARM missiles used in combat. On the next day, A-6s attacked Libyan warships approaching the U.S. Fleet, while A-7s again launched HARM missiles against Libyan SAM sites.[25]

In April 1986, Navy Sixth Fleet A-7Es from VA-72 and VA-46 aboard USS America (CV-66) also participated in Operation El Dorado Canyon, the retaliatory attack on Libya, using HARM and Shrike anti-radar missiles to protect the naval strike force from SAMs.[25]

[edit] Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

A-7E from VA-72 flying over the Saudi desert during Operation Desert Shield
While USAF A-7s stayed home in favor of A-10s, the U.S. Navy deployed two of their last A-7E squadrons to Operation Desert Shield in August 1990 aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), the only carrier of six deployed to Desert Storm to operate the A-7. VA-46 and VA-72 made the last combat sorties of the A-7 in Operation Desert Storm flying from the Red Sea to targets throughout Iraq. The A-7 was used both day and night to attack a wide range of heavily defended deep interdiction targets in Iraq as well as "kill boxes" (geographically defined kill zones) in Kuwait, employing a variety of weapons including precision-guided munitions (PGMs), such as the TV-guided Walleye glide bomb, unguided general purpose bombs, and High Speed Anti-Radiation missiles (HARM). The A-7 was also used as a tanker in numerous in-flight refueling missions.[citation needed]

[edit] Use in F-117 development

The 4450th Tactical Group stationed at Nellis AFB, Nevada had the distinction of being the last active USAF unit to operate the A-7 Corsair II. The mission of the 4450th TG was the operational development of the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, and the unit needed a surrogate aircraft for pilot training and practice. A-7Ds and A-7Ks were obtained from various active duty and air national guard squadrons and were assigned initially to the "(P)" or "Provisional" unit of the 4450th Tactical Group, redesignated the 4451st Tactical Squadron in January 1983.[26]

The A-7s were used as a deception and training aircraft by the group between 1981 and 1989. It was selected because it demanded about the correct amount of pilot workload expected in the F-117A, was single seat, and many of the F-117A pilots had F-4 or F-111 backgrounds. A-7s were used for pilot training before any F-117As had been delivered to bring all pilots to a common flight training base line. Later, the A-7s were used to chase F-117A tests and other weapon tests at the Nellis Range.[26]

A-7D-5-CV AF Serial No. 69-6241 of the 4451st Test Squadron / 4450th Tactical Group at Nellis AFB, Nevada in 1984
A-7 flight operations began in June 1981 concurrent with the very first YF-117A flights. The A-7s wore a unique "LV" tailcode (for Las Vegas) and had a dark purple/black paint motif. The A-7s were based officially at Nellis Air Force Base and were maintained by the 4450th Maintenance Squadron.[26] In addition to providing an excuse for the 4450th's existence and activities, the A-7s were also used to maintain pilot currency, particularly in the early stages when very few production F-117As were available. The pilots learned to fly chase on F-117A test and training flights, perform practice covert deployments, and practice any other purpose that could not be accomplished using F-117As, given the tight restrictions imposed on all F-117A operations.[26]

Some A-7s operated from the Tonopah Test Range Airport, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada where the F-117s were being operationally tested. As a deception operation, care was taken to ensure that F-117As were never left parked outside aircraft hangars during daylight hours. However, A-7s were deliberately and routinely left outside hangars for the benefit of any orbiting Soviet spy satellites. Soviet intelligence agencies examining spy satellite imagery of the base would undoubtedly notice the A-7s parked on the Tonopah flight line, and would not be particularly interested. The intention of this deception was to convince the Soviets that Tonopah operated nothing more exciting than some A-7 Corsairs.[26]

There were approximately 20 A-7D aircraft used in developing the F-117, including several two-seat A-7K trainers. In January 1989, just three months after the USAF admitted the F-117A existed, the A-7s were retired to AMARC and were replaced by AT-38B Talons as training aircraft and the 4451st TS was deactivated.[26]

[edit] Training and retirement

Prototype YA-7Ds 67-14582 and 67-14584, along with 69-6191 and 69-6217 making last flyover retirement formation over Edwards AFB, California, heading to AMARC, August 1992
Pilots quipped that the Corsair "is not very fast, but it sure is slow."[27] For dissimilar air combat training (DACT), and aerial demonstrations by the Blue Angels, the Navy would choose the more nimble Douglas A-4 Skyhawk as a subsonic maneuvering platform, as some considered the A-7 to be inadequate in air combat, even though it was highly maneuverable and was more fitting as a highly successful attack aircraft with a stable bombing platform. The Marine Corps would also pass on the Corsair, opting instead for the V/STOL vertical landing AV-8 Harrier as their light attack aircraft to replace their A-4F/M Skyhawks.[citation needed]

The Hellenic Air Force ordered 60 new A-7H aircraft in 1974 and three TA-7Hs in 1980 and received 62 surplus A-7E/TA-7C from the USN after the Gulf War, 43 of which are still in use. The last squadron that uses the aircraft is the 336th. The A-7 was going to be replaced by a 4.5 generation fighter jet, but due to budget cuts, it will be retired in 2013, without a replacement.[citation needed]

The sale of A-7s to Pakistan was not approved due to U.S. opposition to its nuclear program.[28]

F-16s began replacing the Air National Guard Corsairs beginning in the late 1980s and the last were retired in 1993 by the ANG units at Rickenbacker ANGB, Ohio; Des Moines International Airport/ANGB, Iowa; Tulsa International Airport/ANGB, Oklahoma; and Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport/ANGB, Ohio.

U.S. Navy A-7 Corsairs began being phased out of the fleet during the mid-1980s with the arrival of the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The last Navy A-7s were retired by the last fleet operational squadrons (VA-46 and VA-72) in May 1991 shortly after their return from Operation Desert Storm.

Some of these surplus aircraft were passed to Greece, Thailand and Portugal; however by the end of 1998, with the exception of some airframes used as static displays, all U.S. A-7s were disposed of by the AMARC at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

[edit] Variants

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009)

TA-7C of VA-174 in 1988

EA-7L of VAQ-34 in 1987

Greek Air Force TA-7H

A-7P of the Portuguese Air Force A-7A First production version. Early USN Corsair IIs had two 20 mm Colt Mk 12 cannons with 250 rounds per gun. Maximum ordnance, carried primarily on the wing pylons, was theoretically 15,000 lb (6,804 kg), but was limited by maximum takeoff weight, so the full weapon load could only be carried with greatly reduced internal fuel; Equipped with AN/APN-153 navigational radar, AN/APQ-115 terrain following radar, and a separate AN/APQ-99 attack radar; 199 built. A-7B Uprated TF30-P-8 engine with 12,190 lbf (54.2 kN) of thrust. In 1971, surviving A-7Bs were further upgraded to TF30-P-408 with 13,390 lbf (59.6 kN) of thrust; AN/APQ-115 terrain following radar in earlier A-7A is replaced by AN/APQ-116 terrain following radar; 196 built. A-7C First 67 production A-7E with TF30-P-408 engines. TA-7C Two-seat trainer version for U.S. Navy, 24 converted from A-7B, 36 from A-7C. In 1984, 49 airframes, including the 8 EA-7Ls, were re-engined with the TF41-A-402 and upgraded to A-7E standard. A-7D Version built for the USAF, with one Allison TF41-A-1 turbofan, and a single 20 mm M61 Vulcan gatling cannon; AN/APN-153 navigational radar in earlier models is replaced by AN/APN-185 navigational radar, AN/APQ-116 terrain following radar in earlier A-7B/C is replaced by AN/APQ-126 terrain following radar; 459 built. A-7E Naval carrier-capable equivalent of the A-7D; AN/APN-185 navigational radar in earlier A-7D is replaced by AN/APN-190 navigational radar, AN/APQ-126 terrain following radar in earlier A-7D is replaced by AN/APQ-128 terrain following radar; 529 built. YA-7F Strikefighter (A-7D Plus) Stretched, supersonic version of A-7 powered by an F100, optimized for interdiction role, but cancelled after two prototypes were built. A-7G Proposed version for Switzerland, none built.[29] A-7H Modified A-7E for Greece without air-refuelling capability, 60 built. TA-7H Two-seat trainer version for Greece. EA-7L 8 TA-7C modified into electronic aggressor aircraft used by VAQ-34, upgraded to A-7E standard while retaining twin seats in 1984. A-7K Two-seat trainer version for Air National Guard, 30 built. A-7P Ex-U.S. Navy A-7A rebuilt for Portugal, 44 refurbished with TF30-P-408 engines and an avionics fit similar to the A-7E. TA-7P Two-seat trainer version for Portugal; six converted from ex-U.S. Navy A-7A. YA-7E/YA-7H Two-seat prototypes built by Ling-Temco-Vought as a private venture.
[edit] Operators

See also: List of A-7 Corsair II operators
Greece
Portugal Retired in 1999
Thailand
United States Retired in 1993

[edit] Aircraft on display

Retired A-7 Corsair II in front of the Veterans' Museum in Halls, Tennessee

This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (December 2011)
05_airforcestrike_011504_a7e_thumb_ign.jpg

[edit] A-7A
An A-7A is on display in Hickory, North Carolina, at the Hickory Regional Airport's new Hickory Aviation Museum as of May 2007, operated by the Sabre Society of North Carolina.[30]
A-7A, BuNo 152681, with markings from service with VA-125, is on display since 1993 at the Prairie Aviation Museum in Bloomington, IL.[31]

[edit] A-7B
A-7B BuNo 154548, stationed on USS Oriskany, is on display at the USS Lexington carrier museum at Corpus Christi, TX. The aircraft is on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida.[32]

[edit] A-7D
An A-7D Corsair II Ser. No. 70-0973 of the Arizona Air National Guard is on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, AZ.
An A-7D is on display at the Virginia Aviation Museum in Sandston, VA. It is a Ling-Temco-Vought A-7D-7-CV, Serial No. 70-966. The aircraft flew with the 192d Tactical Fighter Group, Virginia Air National Guard, and is on loan from the National Museum of the United States Air Force.[33]
An A-7D is on display at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The aircraft (AF Ser. No. 70-0970) was flown by Major Colin Clark on a nine-hour rescue mission in Southeast Asia, for which he received the Air Force Cross.[34]
An A-7D, USAF S/N 70-0998, is on display at the Aerospace Museum of California in Sacramento, California on the former McClellan Air Force Base.[35]
An A-7D is used for Aircraft Maintenance Technician training at Tulsa Technology Center in Tulsa, OK. It is fired up every month or so to show the Powerplant students how the engine performs in the aircraft. Tulsa Tech also utilizes the TF-41 jet engine in its indoor turbine test cell.[36]

A-7D "Speedwell" at Wings Museum An A-7D (AF Ser. No. 73-0996), "Speedwell", from the 140th Wing, Colorado Air National Guard is on display at the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum at the former Lowry AFB in Denver, Colorado.[37]
A-7D, AF Ser. No. 69-6200 is on display at the Wings of Eagles Museum at the Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, in Horseheads, NY.[38]

[edit] A-7E
An A-7E in the markings of VA-174 is on display at the War Eagles Air Museum, located at the Doña Ana County Airport, Santa Teresa, New Mexico.[39]
An A-7E on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation is on display aboard the USS Midway (CV-41) Museum in San Diego, California.[40]
An A-7E in the markings of VA-147 is on display at the USS Kidd Veterans Memorial in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.[41]
An A-7E in the markings of VA-72 is on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida.[42]
An A-7E on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation is on display in the Tillamook Air Museum, a World War II Navy blimp hangar in Oregon.[43]
An A-7E is on display on the flight deck of the USS Yorktown (CV-10), at the Patriot's Point Naval and Maritime Museum in Mount Pleasant, SC.[44]
A-7E(2) BuNo 159971 is on display at the Carolinas Aviation Museum at Douglas International Airport in Charlotte, North Carolina; the aircraft last flew off the USS John F. Kennedy during Operation Desert Storm. This aircraft was recovered from NAS Memphis in 1996.[45]
A-7E BuNo 159303 is on display at Edwardsville Township Community Park, Edwardsville, Illinois.[46]

[edit] A-7P
A-7P BuNo 153200 (PoAF 15502) is in the collection of the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków.[47]
A-7P BuNo 153184 (PoAF 15504) preserved as a gate guardian at Ovar Air Base.
A-7P BuNo 153219 (PoAF 15508) on display at the Alverca's Museu do Ar space.[48]
A-7P BuNo 153134 (PoAF 15521), in the markings of 302 Squadron and a special 64,000 flight hours paint scheme, stored at Monte Real Air Base and displayed during unit and base anniversaries.
A-7P BuNo 153162 (PoAF 15524) preserved as a gate guard at Monte Real Air Base.
A-7P BuNo 153254 (PoAF 15537) preserved as a gate guardian at Field Firing Range of Alcochete.
TA-7P BuNo 154354 (PoAF 15550) on display at the Ovar's Museu do Ar space.[49]

[edit] Others
An A-7 on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida is located on the east side of the Interstate 75, just south of Lake City, Florida near Mile Marker 275.[50]
An A-7 is in the collection of the Oakland Aviation Museum in Oakland, California.[51]
A TA-7C, Navy Bureau Number 154407, is located at the National Atomic Museum adjacent to Kirtland AFB in Albuquerque, New Mexico.[52]
A YA-7F, USAF S/N 70-1039, is on display at the Hill Aerospace Museum at Hill AFB, Utah.[53]

[edit] Specifications (A-7E)

Data from Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft,[54]International Directory of Military Aircraft,[55] Combat Aircraft since 1945[56]

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Length: 46 ft 1.5 in (14.06 m)
Wingspan: 38 ft 9 in (11.81 m)
Height: 16 ft 0.75 in (4.90 m)
Wing area: 375 ft² (34.8 m²)
Airfoil: NACA 65A007 root and tip
Empty weight: 19,490 lb (8,840 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 42,000 lb (19,050 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Allison TF41-A-2 turbofan, 14,500 lbf (64.5 kN)

Performance
Maximum speed: 600 knots (698 mph, 1,123 km/h) at sea level
Combat radius: 621 nmi (700 mi, 1,127 km)
Ferry range: 2,485 nmi (2,860 mi, 4,600 km) with external fuel tanks
Service ceiling: 42,000 ft. (12801.6m)
Wing loading: 77.4 lb/ft² (379 kg/m²)
Thrust/weight: 0.50

Armament

Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon with 1,030 rounds
Hardpoints: 6× under-wing and 2× fuselage pylon stations (for mounting AIM-9 Sidewinder AAMs only) with a capacity of 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of: Rockets: 4× LAU-10 rocket pods (each with 4× 127 mm Mk 32 Zuni rockets)
Missiles:
2× AIM-9 Sidewinder AAM
2× AGM-45 Shrike Anti-radiation missile (ARM)
2× AGM-62 Walleye TV-guided Glide bomb
2× AGM-65 Maverick
2× AGM-88 HARM
2× GBU-8 electro-optically guided Glide bomb

Bombs:
Up to 30× 500 lb (227 kg) Mark 82 bombs or Mark 80 series of unguided bombs (including 3 kg and 14 kg practice bombs)
Paveway series of laser-guided bombs

Up to 4× B28 nuclear bomb/B57 nuclear bomb/B61 nuclear bombs
Other: up to 4 × 300/330/370 US gallon drop tanks[nb 1]

Avionics

Texas Instruments AN/APQ-126 terrain following radar http://zarco.wikispot.org/Front_Page http://zarconian.wikia.com/wiki/Zarco_Space_Army

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License